pg 1053-1070 - Pages 1053-1070 o The Great Depression...

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Pages 1053-1070 o The Great Depression beyond the West o WWI and postwar investment had generated economic growth, a rising population and explosive urbanization in Asia, Africa, and Latin America o India was a prime example of visibly rising anger toward colonialism Upper-class Indians were joined in the 1930s by millions of working people, including veterans from WWI Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the charismatic leader for Indian independence He advocated civil disobedience – deliberately but peacefully breaking the law – which he professed to model on British suffragists’ tactics and on the teachings of Jesus, Buddha and other spiritual leaders Boycotted British made goods, which ended up with Gandhi in jail repeatedly; British tried to split the independence movement by encouraging the Muslim League and promoting Hindu-Muslim antagonism o In the Middle East, Westernizer Mustafa Kemal ( Ataturk “first among Turks” ), led the Turks to found an independent republic in 1923 and to craft a capitalist economy Kemal moved the capital from Constantinople to Ankara, officially changing the name to Istanbul in 1930, mandated Western dress for men and women, introduced the Latin alphabet and abolished polygamy TOTALITARIAN TRIUMPH o The Rise of Stalinism o In the 1930s, Stalin led the transformation of the USSR from a rural society into a industrial power, ended the New Economic Policy o Transforming the Economy Stalin’s five-year plans outlined a program for massive increases in the output of coal, iron ore, steel and industrial goods over successive five- year periods Established central economic planning – a policy used on both sides in WWI and increasingly favored by economists and industrialists around the world Stalin’s first five-year plan helped make the USSR a leading industrial nation Central planning helped created a new elite of bureaucrats and industrial officials Because fulfilling the plan had top priority as a measure of progress toward Communist utopia, official lying about productivity became ingrained in the economic system Both the grim conditions and honest commitment to Communist goals turned the Soviet Union from an illiterate peasant society to an advanced industrial economy in a single decade Stalin announced a new revolutionary challenge: the “liquidation of the kulaks” “fist,” a derogatory term for prosperous peasants, but in practice it applied to anyone who opposed Stalin’s plans to end independent farming
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course HIST 1010 taught by Professor Frazier during the Fall '05 term at Western Michigan.

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pg 1053-1070 - Pages 1053-1070 o The Great Depression...

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