pg 1195-1204; 1207-1210; 1218-1222

pg 1195-1204; 1207-1210; 1218-1222 - Pages 1195-1204;...

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Pages 1195-1204; 1207-1210; 1218-1222 CHECHNYA AND CENTRAL ASIAN STATES: THE QUEST FOR INDEPENDENCE AND INFLUENCE Although Gorbachev had pulled the Soviet Union out of its war with Afghanistan, his successors opened another war to prevent the secession of oil-rich Chechnya and to provide a nationalist rallying cry to shore up domestic support for the administration o The Soviets had effectively squashed ethnic hostility of and toward Chechens, deporting those who used ethnic politics and importing peoples to regions where ethnic concentrations needed diluting o In the fall of 1991, the National Congress of the Chechen People took over the government of the region from the USSR, moving toward the same kind of independence sought by the Baltic nations and other former Soviet States o In June 1992, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Chechen rebels got control of massive numbers of Russian weapons (airplanes, tanks and some 40,000 automatic weapons and machine guns) o December 1994, the Russians sealed the Chechen borders and invaded Yeltsin, prompted by his advisers, announced the impossibility of negotiating with the Chechens to counteract the Russian population’s opposition to the war In 1996, the KGB assassinated the Chechen leader Dzhokar Dudayev with a rocket as he spoke on his cell phone, but the war persisted still In 2002, Chechen loyalists took hundreds of hostages in a Moscow theater, they were killed by nerve gas in a successful liberation attempt that also killed almost 200 of the hostages The Chechen war only compounded Russia’s problems of establishing a sound economy and credible post-Communist government o As the war continued, the newly independent states of Central Asia became enmeshed in the politics of oil and Islam o Led by the states of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, they became involved in the issues of terrorism, local political factionalism and the global economy…all of which surrounding oil Uzbekistan lent its territory to various groups of anti-Western radicals for recruiting and training military activists Kazakhstan had huge resources to exploit, which allowed it to play Western oil companies off against Muslim interests in the region Democracy and human rights weren’t an issue: they simply didn’t exist GLOBAL OPPORTUNITIES TRANSCEND THE NATION-STATE Europe Looks Beyond the Nation-State o The Common Market had opened the pathway to unified supranational policy in economic matters, and its evolution into the European Union expanded that cooperation to political and cultural matters
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o From Common Market to European Union In 1992, the 12 countries of the Common Market ended national distinctions in the spheres of business activity, border controls, and transportation, effectively closing down passport controls at most of their common borders In 1994, by the terms of the Maastricht Treaty , the European Community became the
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pg 1195-1204; 1207-1210; 1218-1222 - Pages 1195-1204;...

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