Chapter 14: Nonadaptive Evolution and Speciation –Study Guide TYPE IN YOUR ANSWERS USING A DIFFERENT COLOR! 81 points total converted to 100 point scale in gradebook. Complete and submit via Ch. 14 Dropbox Define: (1 point each = 14) [POPULATION GENETICS] the study of the distributions and changes of allele frequency in a population as the population is subject to the four main evolutionary processes (natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and gene flow). [GENE POOL] the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population. [ALLELE FREQUENCY] the relative proportion of an allele in a population. [NONADAPTIVE EVOLUTION] any change in allele frequency that doesn’t by itself lead a population to become more adapted to its environment (the causes are mutation, genetic drift, and gene flow ((evolution outside the context of natural selection and adaptation)). [GENETIC DRIFT] is the random change is allele frequencies, and it effects smaller populations the most. [FOUNDER EFFECT] is when part of a population, aka the founders, leave and establishes a new one. This is a form of genetic drift. [BOTTLENECK EFFECT] is when a large population loses a large portion of its members. [GENE FLOW] is the movement of alleles from one population to another. This may increase the genetic diversity of a population. [INBREEDING] is sharing a common ancestry due to mating between closely related individuals. This does not change the allele frequency in a population, but it does increase the proportion of homozygous individuals to heterozygous individuals. [INBREEDING DEPRESSION] is reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding. [HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE] is the principle that both allele and genotype frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next. [BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT] is the definition of a species as a population whose members can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. [REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION] is the prevention of members of 2 different species that cross or mate from producing offspring, or which ensure that any offspring that may be produced are sterile. [SPECIATION] is when populations of species become genetically different enough that they no longer are able to mate and produce fertile offspring.