Values File

Values File

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Unformatted text preview: judge may experience himself as a moral person who is simply bowing to irresistible forces that transcend his own conscience or sense of justice. Thus the judge's claim to speak in a universal voice goes hand-in- hand with his claim to have moved beyond individual emotions and morals into the emotionless realm of the rule of law. This judicial mentality exacts terrible costs. It demeans litigants and others whose claims fall outside the ambit of the "universal" voice, those whose claims evoke emotions that the judge either cannot understand or cannot admit feeling (such as racial hatred). This mentality conversely privileges emotions that the judge doesn't think of as "emotional" (such as the zeal to prosecute and the desire for revenge). Most disturbingly, it permits a retreat from responsibility. Because the judge has not truly understood the consequences to the excluded litigants, and because, to the extent he has understood them, he has not accepted responsibility for causing them, he is able to exact these costs while minimizing his own emotional distress. SLHS Value File Environmental Security Environmental stress boosts existing possibilities for international conflict and civil war Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, Director of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at the University of Toronto, Environment, Scarcity and Violence, 1999, p.3 We can narrow the scope further by focusing on how environmental stress affects violent national and international conflict. Intuitively, this topic seems more tractable. In the 1970s and 1980s, experts suggested various ways such violence might arise. Some proposed, for example, that environmental stress might shift the balance of power among states either regionally or globally, producing power instabilities that cause war.' Others suggested that, as global environmental damage increases the gap between the industrialized and developing worlds, poor nations might militarily confront the rich for a fairer share of the planet's wealth.' Warmer temperatures could lead to contention over new ice-free sea-lanes in the Arctic or more accessible resources in the Antarctic.' Bulging popul...
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This document was uploaded on 11/20/2013.

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