Values File

No increase in efficiency in the form of greater

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Unformatted text preview: o have a public sphere in which interlocutors can deliberate as peers, it is not sufficient merely to bracket social inequality." Accordingly, Fraser contends that participatory parity must instead be grounded in the elimination of systemic social inequalities, thus breaking the cycle of power inequalities. n39 She defines this as a "sort of rough equality that is inconsistent with systemically generated relations of dominance and subordination." Participatory parity, she concludes, "is essential to a democratic public sphere and ... rough socioeconomic equality is a precondition of participatory parity." Whether or not one disputes the practicality of Fraser's remedy, her diagnosis rings true. Many people in American society exist in a state of relative political powerlessness, and such people are disproportionately members of racial minority and lower socioeconomic groups. Political and normative power tends to be concentrated in the hands of those who are white and wealthy, and this dynamic can drive educational policies damaging to the interests of poor and minority members of the community. SLHS Value File Efficiency / Expediency Bad SOCIAL EFFICIENCY DOES NOT JUSTIFY INJUSTICE John Rawls, The Justification of Civil Disobedience, COLLECTED PAPERS BY JOHN RAWLS, 1969, pg 184 Social arrangements irrespective of their efficiency must be reformed if they are significantly unjust. No increase in efficiency in the form of greater advantages for many justifies the loss of liberty of a few. That we believe this is shown by the fact that in a democracy the fundamental liberties of citizenship are not understood as the outcome of political bargaining, nor are they subject to the calculus of social interests. Rather these liberties are fixed points which serve to limit political transactions and which determine the scope of calculations of social advantage. It is this fundamental place of the equal liberties which makes their systematic violation over any extended period of time a proper object of civil disobedience. SLHS V...
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