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Unformatted text preview: ion-states. The Italian Marxist Gramsci observed the uneven development of the bourgeoisie in late medieval Europe and concluded: "The historical unity of the ruling classes is realized in the State and their history is essentially the history of States or groups of States" (1971: 52; see Arrighi 1993). The power of the sovereign state ruled by a particular bourgeoisie marked the boundaries of internal markets as well as the geopolitical monopoly of available bodies (labor power) and natural resources. Enlightenment thinkers like Rousseau and Kant contemplated the positive value of international solidarity and cooperation among the bourgeois states. Meanwhile, philosophers like Herder and Fichte, followed by Hegel, Mazzini, Acton, and Weber, among others, espoused in various ways the rights of culturally defined collectivities called "nations" against imperial hegemony and its "civilizing" agents. When inflected with liberal or conservative predilections, nationalism acquires either a benign or malignant temper. In "What Is a Nation?" (1882), Ernest Renan rejected Edmund Burke's idea of the nation as founded on religion and tradition. Renan believed that the nation "is a soul, a spiritual principle" that derives from "a common heroic past, great leaders and true glory" confirmed in daily plebiscites (1995: 154). When this idea of nation built on sacrifice is inflected with the racial superiority of its constituents-"a mass psychological vibration predicated upon an intuitive sense of consanguinity" (Connor 1978: 381), modern fascism is born. SLHS Value File Civil Disobedience
TACIT CONSENT IS NOT AN EXCUSE TO FORBID CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE Peter Suber, professor of philosophy, Earlham College,"Civil Disobedience," http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/writing/civdis.htm, 7/31/2003 We must obey the law under a contract with other members of our society. We have tacitly consented to the laws by residing in the state and enjoying its benefits. Obviously this objection can be evaded by anyone who...
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This document was uploaded on 11/20/2013.
- Fall '13