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Unformatted text preview: od it aimed to promote. He argued that the state was a developing maturing 'moral and spiritual organism' with 'a personality which, having spirit and body, possesses and manifests a will of its own'. EVOLUTIONARY THEORY DENIES THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL Robert Solomon, Professor of Philosophy, University of Texas, A PASSION FOR JUSTICE, 1990, p.130. One dominant metaphor in recent evolutionary theory is the game, which does not, of course, suggest that the animals that are fighting for their survival are having fun. But it is a metaphor that has the virtue of embracing both competition and cooperation within a framework in which the integrity of the group is presupposed. In this, it is both slightly similar to and dramatically different from that "state of nature" model that defines so many theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. THERE'S NO EVIDENCE ON THE EVOLUTION OF A CONTRACT Jeremy Waldron, Professor of Law, University of California, Berkeley, THE SOCIAL CONTRACT FROM HOBBES TO RAWLS, David Boucher and Paul Kelly, eds., 1994, p.55. As if this were not enough, there is a further difficulty with the historical plausibility of the contractarian account. Not only is there evidence that political society evolved in a non-contractarian way, there is also none of the sort of evidence we should expect to find if contractarian events had been involved in its development. The point is stated clearly by David Hume: It is strange, that an act of mind, which every individual is supposed to have formed, and after he came to the use of reason too, otherwise it could have no authority; that this act, I say, should be so much unknown to all of them, that, over the face of the whole earth, there scarcely remain any traces or memory of it. EVEN THE MOST PLAUSIBLE HISTORICAL THEORY OF THE CONTRACT HAS DIFFICULTIES Michael Lessnoff, Professor of Politics, University of Glasgow, SOCIAL CONTRACT, 1986, p.87-8. Perhaps the most plausible, as a strictly historical account, is that of Alt...
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- Fall '13