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US History AP NotesChapter 16 – The Civil War, 1861-1865-Communities Mobilize For War-Fort Sumter: The War Begins-Both Presidents hoped for peace, but positioned for war-Lincoln said that he would use all his power to hold, occupy, and possess property and places belonging to government, one of these places was Fort Sumter, South Carolina; claimed by both sides-Fort Sumter sat at entrance to Charleston harbor-As long as Fort Sumter was in Union hands, Charleston would be immobilized-Fort was dangerously low on supplies, Lincoln was forced to make decision of whether to abandon it or risk fight that might ensue-Lincoln notified governor of S.C. that he was sending a relief force with only food supplies, but Jefferson Davis reacted by telling General P.G.T. Beauregard to demand surrender and to attack if garrison did not comply; April 12, Beauregard opened fire, two days later the defenders surrendered to the Confederacy-The Call to Arms-Confederate Congress authorized a volunteer army of 100,000 even before Fort Sumter-Volunteers flocked to enlist, excited, it was a patriotic adventure for them, thought the war would end quickly-In North strong patriotic feelings emerged, people were angered-Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen to serve in federal army for 90 days-Free African Americans among most eager to serve but were turned away-Small communities showed large amounts of patriotism by starting organizations that helped supply the troops being sent to war-The Border States-Border states forced to take sides after Fort Sumter-Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined original seven states that seceded in April and May-Virginia’s secession tipped other three toward Confederacy-Capital of Confederacy was moved to Richmond-Southern sympathizers began to cause trouble and riot in Maryland, however Lincoln responded sternly and quickly, stationing troops along railroads and declaring Martial Law in Baltimore, and arrested 32 secessionist legislators-Ensured Maryland’s loyalty to the Union-First number of violations of basic civil rights during war, justified by Lincoln on basis of national security-Other border states were also divided-Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky chose to stay with Union-The Battle of Bull Run
-Both sides were unprepared for realities of war, especially Union-35,000 man Union army accompanied with politicians and sightseers-At first Union army held ground, but when Confederate reinforcements arrived, Union fled the battleground uncontrolled back to Washington-Civil War took lives of 620,000 men-One out of every four soldiers who fought in war was killed-The Relative Strengths of North and South-In terms of population and productive capacity, Union had advantage-First short-term advantage for South was nature of war, in which the war was a defensive struggle, meaning it was more local defense-Second short-term advantage was that military disparity was less extreme than it appeared, North had manpower but troops were mostly untrained,