ch31 - Chapter 31 Outline Continuing Divisions and New Limits 19691980 I Introduction During the 1970s the American people were polarized over U.S

ch31 - Chapter 31 Outline Continuing Divisions and New...

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1Chapter 31 Outline - Continuing Divisions and New Limits, 1969–1980 I. Introduction During the 1970s, the American people were polarized over U.S. policy in Vietnam, cultural nationalism, the women's movement, and the gay liberation movement. President Nixon and his national security advisor, Henry Kissinger, recognized the limits of American power and believed that international stability depended on stable relations among the great powers. This was also a time when the faith of the American people in their government was shaken by President Nixon's illegal acts. As Americans became disillusioned and cynical about their leaders, President Carter's presidency was undermined by international events beyond his control and by a deepening economic crisis within the nation that proved once again the vulnerability of the United States to decisions by foreign governments. II. The New Politics of Identity oA. African American Cultural Nationalism African American activists began to emphasize the distinctiveness of black culture and society. oB. Mexican American Activism Mexican Americans faced discrimination in hiring, pay, housing, schools, and the courts. From 1965 through 1970, César Chávez and Dolores Huerta led migrant workers in a strike against large grape owners in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The United Farm Workers won better wages and working conditions in 1970. oC. Chicano Movement In 1969, the National Chicano Youth Conference called for the
2liberation of "La Raza" (the brown people) from the oppression of American society and culture. Throughout the 1970s, young activists called for "Brown Power" based on a separate and distinct Chicano culture. oD. Native American Activism Young Native Americans were influenced by cultural nationalist beliefs, and between 1968 and 1975, Native American activists forced American society to hear their demands and to reform government policies toward Native Americans. In 1969, a group of activists occupied Alcatraz Island and demanded the return of the land to native peoples for use as a cultural center. In 1972, members of the American Indian Movement occupied a Bureau of Indian Affairs office in Washington, D.C. In 1973, members of AIM occupied a trading post at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. In response to the demands of these radical activists and to the work of more moderate Native Americans, Congress in 1975 passed the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act. oE. Affirmative Action President Johnson indicated his belief that the federal government had a responsibility to helpindividualsattain the skills necessary to compete in American society. He wedded this belief to the idea that equality could be measured by group outcomes. This led to a shift in emphasis from individual opportunity to group outcomes.

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