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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW1Literature ReviewM. Agustina, Regginald Middlebrooks, Church Ryanne, Christy Thomas, Angela Zemel.Walden University
LITERATURE REVIEW2Literature ReviewPrescription drug abuse is a strengthen epidemic that has taken many Americans by storm; the non-medical use of prescription narcotics has gain the attention of analyst, govern bodies and activist groups across the nation, in an attempt to combat and devise countermeasures to adequately handle the pressures of this rising social conflict. Prescription narcotic, also known as, psychotherapeutics are increasingly becoming more and more available to non-prescribed users, thus making the sale of these medications a thriving illegal market and extremely dangerous in their non-medical usage.The U.S. is known as the world’s largest consumer of painkillers, using 71 % of the world’s oxycodone and 99% of the world’s hydrocodone, or Vicodin. In 2008 over six million people, 2.5% of the total U.S. population aged 12 and older, reported using prescription narcotics, for non-medical purposes. The age group of 18-25, has shown the highest rate of abuse @ 56%, with 29.2% recorded as lifetime users. (DuPont 2010 p. 128) Studies show that many prescription drug abusers obtain these addictive substances legally as well. From 1992-2002 prescriptions written for controlled substances increased 154.3%, while prescription for non-controlled substances increased by 56.6%. This alarming increased has cause major concerns with the Federal Drug Enforcement Agency, resulting in random record seizure and drug dispensing permit confiscation.(Roosevelt, Dawson pg. 56-58) Even though the 18-25 years old range has shown the most abusive traits in prescription narcotics abuse, many high school youths have also falling victim to this nationwide disease. Amongst teenagers, prescription narcotic use ranks second, marijuana being first, as the most widely abused substance. 4.7% of high school seniors reported using Oxycontin for non-medical purposes, 9.7% reported using Vicodin for non-medical purposes. (DuPont 2010 p. 128-129)
LITERATURE REVIEW3Prescription drug use among teenagers is on the rise simply because the meds are easily accessible. Most youths have parents and grandparents with a ready supply of theczse addictive thrills in their bedroom and/or bathrooms cabinets. Statistics show, in relation to prescription narcotics and gender, teenage females are more likely to abuse prescription drugs then teenage males. Studies state that female abusers usually suffer more from some form of depression or physiological trauma such as sexual assault, physical abuse or physiological mistreatment, resulting in their prolonged habitual use.The rising trend of prescription drug use shares it tremendous incline with hospital emergency rooms across nation. Since 1990, visits associated with the overuse of tranquilizers has increased 170%, individuals abusing prescription pain killers that visits emergency rooms have increased an astonishing 450%. The National Drug Survey has recorded over 200,000 emergency room visits affiliated with prescription narcotic abuse.