Old world II Portugal, Spain, Germany, rest of Europe
Portugal & Spain
History of Wine Production History of Wine Production • Vines were already growing when the Phoenicians arrived around 1100 bc. • Phoenicians started first commercial winemaking. • Invading Carthaginians greatly expanded wine production. • The Roman Empire began its fall in the second century ad and Germanic tribes invaded. • In the 5 th century AD, viticulture continued under the Goths. • Moors ruled peacefully for over 600 years. • Christians and Jews were allowed to continue making and consuming wines. • Portugal declared itself a Christian kingdom in 1136. • Between 1300 and 1500, trade with rest of Europe increased.
Wine Regions of Portugal Wine Regions of Portugal • Vinho Verde • Douro • Porto • Bairrada and Dão • Setúbal • Alentejo • Madeira
Port • Port has been called the world’s greatest fortified wine • Produced in the Duoro (world’s first dedicated wine zone- established in 1756). Are 83,000 individual vineyards in the Duoro (Kolpan et al, 2002) • Porto made by transferring fermented wine with an alcohol content of 6-7% to casks (pipes) containing clear grape brandy (aguardence) that is 77% alcohol/154 proof. The ratio is 116 gallons of wine to 29 gallons of spirit. The final Porto product ranges between 18-20% alcohol. • Portos from a single, unblended year first recognized in 1734 • Although all port is sweet, and most of it red, there are many different styles. • Styles vary according to – Quality of wine – How long wine is aged in wood before bottling (from 2-40 years) – Whether wine is from single year or blended from wines of several years
Types of Port • White port • Ruby port • Vintage character port • Tawny port • Colheita port • Late bottled vintage port (LBV) • Vintage port • Single quinta vintage port
Service • Serve Port at cool room temperature 64°(although white and tawny may be served cool) • Good companions for Port – walnuts & strong cheeses e.g. Stilton, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, mature Cheddar & aged Gouda
Port Producers • Taylor-Fladgate • Fonesca • Graham • Quinta do Noval • Nacinal • Dow • Smith-Woodhouse • Cockburn
Spanish Wine—Historical Spanish Wine—Historical Perspective Perspective • 1492 – Spain became a united Christian country under one crown – Christopher Columbus opened up a new world for Spanish and Portuguese trade, including wines – Spanish Inquisition • Foreign traders attracted by Spanish Sherry. • Period of peaceful commercial enterprise didn’t last. – War with England – England imposed heavy taxes
Spanish Wine—Historical Spanish Wine—Historical Perspective (cont.) Perspective (cont.) • During the early 19th century, vineyard acreage in Spain increased fourfold.
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- Spring '11
- The Land, Port wine, Fortified wine