Page 1Chapter 18-The Cardiovascular System-Heart AssignmentNicoletta KrinisFor this assignment, please read the chapter and answer the questions below. Please type your answers in red or blue color.Please note that points may be deducted if answers are not submitted in these colors.Sentences in italics are meant to help you understand the material- they are not questions.Cardiovascular System:The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, and vessels, arteries, capillaries and veins.What is the function of this system? (1 point)The function of the cardiovascular system is 1) to transport nutrients, gases, blood and waste products aroundthe body. 2) Help protect the body from infection and blood loss. 3) Help maintain a constant bodytemperature. 4) Help maintain fluid balance within the body.Heart: (6 points)The heart is a hollow, ___cone_________-shaped, muscular pump within the ______thoracic______ cavity.The average adult heart is __14_____ cm long and _____9____ cm wide.The heart lies in the _________mediastinum_________ under the sternum; its apex extends to the ____5th____ intercostal space.Pericardium: (6 points)It is made of a tough outer bag that surrounds a double-layered sac. This tough, outer layer is composed of dense connective tissue and is called the ______fibrous_______ pericardium.Double-layered sac. The innermost layer of this sac immediately surrounds the heart and is called the ________visceral____________ pericardium (also called __epicardium__). At the base of the heart, this inner layer folds back on itself to become the _____parietal______ pericardium. Between the layers of this sac is a potential space called the __pericardial___ cavity and it is filled with ____serous_____ fluid. What is the function of this fluid? (1 point)The function of serous fluid is to reduce friction within the pericardium by lubricating the epicardial surface allowing the membranes to glide over each other with each heartbeat.Wall of the Heart (4 points)The wall of the heart is composed of three distinct layers.BIO 202 – Chapter 18
Page 2The outermost layer, the _________epicardium______________, is made up of connective tissue and epithelium, and contains blood and lymph capillaries along with __coronary__ arteries. It is the same as the visceral pericardium.The middle layer called _____myocardium______consists of cardiac muscle and is the thickest layer ofthe heart wall.The inner ___endocardium____is smooth and is made of connective tissue and epithelium. It is continuous with the endothelium of major vessels joining the heart.