Chapter 18- The Cardiovascular System-Heart Assignment20192020 (1) (AutoRecovered) - Page 1 Chapter 18-The Cardiovascular System-Heart Assignment

Chapter 18- The Cardiovascular System-Heart Assignment20192020 (1) (AutoRecovered)

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Page 1 Chapter 18-The Cardiovascular System-Heart Assignment Nicoletta Krinis For this assignment, please read the chapter and answer the questions below. Please type your answers in red or blue color. Please note that points may be deducted if answers are not submitted in these colors. Sentences in italics are meant to help you understand the material- they are not questions. Cardiovascular System: The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, and vessels, arteries, capillaries and veins. What is the function of this system? ( 1 point ) The function of the cardiovascular system is 1) to transport nutrients, gases, blood and waste products around the body. 2) Help protect the body from infection and blood loss. 3) Help maintain a constant body temperature. 4) Help maintain fluid balance within the body. Heart: (6 points) The heart is a hollow, ___ cone _________-shaped, muscular pump within the ______ thoracic ______ cavity. The average adult heart is __ 14 _____ cm long and _____ 9 ____ cm wide. The heart lies in the _________ mediastinum _________ under the sternum; its apex extends to the ____ 5 th ____ intercostal space. Pericardium: (6 points) It is made of a tough outer bag that surrounds a double-layered sac. This tough, outer layer is composed of dense connective tissue and is called the ______ fibrous _______ pericardium. Double-layered sac. The innermost layer of this sac immediately surrounds the heart and is called the ________ visceral ____________ pericardium (also called __ epicardium __). At the base of the heart, this inner layer folds back on itself to become the _____ parietal ______ pericardium. Between the layers of this sac is a potential space called the __ pericardial ___ cavity and it is filled with ____ serous _____ fluid. What is the function of this fluid? ( 1 point ) The function of serous fluid is to reduce friction within the pericardium by lubricating the epicardial surface allowing the membranes to glide over each other with each heartbeat. Wall of the Heart (4 points) The wall of the heart is composed of three distinct layers. BIO 202 – Chapter 18
Page 2 The outermost layer, the _________ epicardium ______________, is made up of connective tissue and epithelium, and contains blood and lymph capillaries along with __ coronary __ arteries. It is the same as the visceral pericardium. The middle layer called _____ myocardium ______consists of cardiac muscle and is the thickest layer of the heart wall. The inner ___ endocardium ____is smooth and is made of connective tissue and epithelium. It is continuous with the endothelium of major vessels joining the heart.

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