NASC 130 Essentials3_ch12

The bit and lifts cuttings high density the heavy mud

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Unformatted text preview: Riches in Rock: Energy & Mineral Resources Oil Production When a reservoir is encountered, drilling ceases Steel casing prevents collapse of the hole After casing, the well is pumped Essentials of Geology, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 12: Riches in Rock: Energy & Mineral Resources Oil Production Primary recovery Primary Uses reservoir pressure and pumping to extract oil Inefficient; only able to recover about 30% of the oil Secondary recovery Fluids (steam, CO2) are injected to heat and push oil are Hydrofracturing – artificially increases permeability Essentials of Geology, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 12: Riches in Rock: Energy & Mineral Resources Oil Production Crude oil must be refined Crude Crude oil is distilled into separate compounds Lighter molecules rise to the top of distillation columns Heavier molecules remain at the bottom Essentials of Geology, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 12: Riches in Rock: Energy & Mineral Resources Alternative Hydrocarbons Natural gas – volatile short-chain hydrocarbons Natural Methane, ethane, propane, butane, and others Methane, Gas floats on top of oil in a reservoir Gas Below the oil window, hydrocarbons are turned into gas Below More abundant than oil and a cleaner fuel More Utilization requires expensive high-pressure pipelines Essentials of Geology, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 12: Riches in Rock: Energy & Mineral Resources Alternative Hydrocarbons Tar sands ...
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