2--x86 Processor

14 which intel processor rst used mmx technology 15

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Unformatted text preview: on? 9. Which flag is set when an arithmetic or logical operation generates a negative result? 10. Which part of the CPU performs floating-point arithmetic? 11. How many bits long are the FPU data registers? 12. Which Intel processor was the first member of the IA-32 family? 13. Which Intel processor first introduced superscalar execution? 14. Which Intel processor first used MMX technology? 15. Describe the CISC design approach. 16. Describe the RISC design approach. 2.3 x86 Memory Management x86 processors manage memory according to the basic modes of operation discussed in Section 2.2.1. Protected mode is the most robust and powerful, but it does restrict application programs from directly accessing system hardware. In real-address mode, only 1 MByte of memory can be addressed, from hexadecimal 00000 to FFFFF. The processor can run only one program at a time, but it can momentarily interrupt that program to process requests (called interrupts) from peripherals. Application programs are permitted to access any memory location, including addresses that are linked directly to system hardware. The MS-DOS operating system runs in real-address mode, and Windows 95 and 98 can be booted into this mode. In protected mode, the processor can run multiple programs at the same time. It assigns each process (running program) a total of 4 GByte of memory. Each program can be assigned its own reserved memory area, and programs are prevented from accidentally accessing each other’s code and data. MS-Windows and Linux run in protected mode. In virtual-8086 mode, the computer runs in protected mode and creates a virtual 8086 machine with its own 1-MByte address space that simulates an 80x86 computer running in realaddress mode. Windows NT and 2000, for example, create a virtual 8086 machine when you open a Command window. You can run many such windows at the same time, and each is protected from the actions of the others. Some MS-DOS programs that make direct references to computer hardware will not run in this mode under Windows NT, 2000, and XP. In Sections...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2013 for the course CSE 451 taught by Professor Hussein during the Winter '13 term at Fatih Üniversitesi.

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