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Unformatted text preview: contain an integrated set of several microprocessors
and controllers, called a chipset. The chipset largely determines the capabilities of the computer. For More BS-IT Books, Notes & Assignments visit: www.bsit.zxq.net 2.7 Chapter Exercises
Downloaded From: www.bsit.zxq.net 57 The video adapter controls the display of text and graphics on IBM-compatibles. It has two
components: the video controller and video display memory.
Several basic types of memory are used in PCs: ROM, EPROM, Dynamic RAM (DRAM),
Static RAM (SRAM), Video RAM (VRAM), and CMOS RAM.
The Universal Serial Bus (USB) port provides an intelligent, high-speed connection between a
computer and USB-supported devices. A parallel port transmits 8 or 16 data bits simultaneously
from one device to another. An RS-232 serial port sends binary bits one at a time, resulting in
slower speeds than the parallel and USB ports.
Input-output is accomplished via different access levels, similar to the virtual machine concept. Library functions are at the highest level, and the operating system is at the next level
below. The BIOS (Basic Input-Output System) is a collection of functions that communicate
directly with hardware devices. Programs can also directly access input-output devices.
A simple instruction set can be designed in such a way that each instruction is the same length,
it carries out most operations within registers, and only reads and writes memory from a single
register. The RISC (reduced instruction set architecture) is modeled along these principles. 2.7 Chapter Exercises The following exercises require you to look in Intel’s online manuals relating to the Intel64 and
IA-32 processor architecture.
1. What are some of the innovative characteristics of the P6 processor architecture?
2. Locate a description of the Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture in one of the Intel64 and IA-32
processor manuals. Read about and summarize the functions of the Front End Pipeline.
3. Brieﬂy explain the meaning of out of order execution. Why is it useful?
4. In processors that use Intel’s Hyperthreading Technology, what components are coupled with
each logical processor?
5. What is the size of the physical address space in a processor that implements the Intel64
6. What are the Intel Virtual Machine Extensions? Why are virtual machines useful today? For More BS-IT Books, Notes & Assignments visit: www.bsit.zxq.net...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2013 for the course CSE 451 taught by Professor Hussein during the Winter '13 term at Fatih Üniversitesi.
- Winter '13