Unformatted text preview: tel’s implementation of the x86-64 speciﬁcation, originally developed by AMD. Intel64 provides a 64-bit linear address space, although individual processors generally implement less than 64 bits. Their physical address space can be greater than 64 GBytes.
Intel64 provides backward compatibility to run 32-bit programs with no performance penalty.
Intel64 was ﬁrst used in the Pentium Extreme processor, and has continued in the Intel Xeon,
Celeron D, Pentium D, Core 2, Core i7, and Atom processors, as well as newer generations of
the Pentium 4. In addition to the Protected mode, Real-address mode, and System management
modes of the IA-32 processor family, Intel64 processors support the IA-32e mode, designed
for 64-bit processing.
IA-32e Mode IA-32e Mode has two sub-modes, designed to beneﬁt users of 64-bit operating
systems such as Windows Vista and Linux: Compatibility mode and 64-bit mode.
1. Compatibility mode permits legacy 16-bit and 32-bit applications to run without recompilation under a 64-bit operating system. Operand sizes are 16 and 32 bits, and the addressable
range of memory is 4 GByte.
2. 64-bit mode uses 64-bit addresses, 64-bit (and 32-bit) operands, a greater number of registers, and extensions to the instruction set to improve the processing of massive amounts of
data. Memory segmentation is disabled, creating a ﬂat 64-bit linear-address space.
Individual applications running at the same time can run in either Compatibility mode or 64-bit
mode. But an application running in 64-bit mode cannot use the segmented or real-address modes.
Processor Families At the time of this book’s publication, the following Intel processor families were currently the most widely used. To give you an idea of their relative power, some speciﬁcations are listed. These statistics become obsolete quickly, so consult the intel.com Web site
for the latest information:
Intel Celeron—dual-core, 512 KByte L2 cache, up to 2.2 GHz, 800 MHz bus
Intel Pentium—dual-core, 2 MByte L2 cache, 1....
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2013 for the course CSE 451 taught by Professor Hussein during the Winter '13 term at Fatih Üniversitesi.
- Winter '13