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A motherboard chipset is a collection of processor chips designed to work together on a speciﬁc
type of motherboard. Various chipsets have features that increase processing power, multimedia
capabilities, or reduce power consumption. The Intel P965 Express Chipset can be used as an
example. It is used in desktop PCs, with either an Intel Core 2 Duo or Pentium D processor. Here
are some of its features:
• Intel Fast Memory Access uses an updated Memory Controller Hub (MCH). It can access
dual-channel DDR2 memory, at an 800 MHz clock speed.
• An I/O Controller Hub (Intel ICH8/R/DH) uses Intel Matrix Storage Technology (MST) to
support six Serial ATA devices (disk drives).
• Support for 10 USB ports, six PCI express slots, networking, Intel Quiet System technology.
• A high deﬁnition audio chip provides digital sound capabilities.
A diagram may be seen in Figure 2–11. Motherboard manufacturers will build products around
speciﬁc chipsets. For example, the P5B-E P965 motherboard by Asus Corporation uses the P965
chipset. Figure 2–11 Intel 965 Express Chipset Block Diagram. Source: The Intel P965 Express Chipset (product brief),
© 2006 by Intel Corporation, used by permission.
http://www.intel.com/Assets/PDF/prodbrief/P965-prodbrief.pdf For More BS-IT Books, Notes & Assignments visit: www.bsit.zxq.net 50 Chapter 2 • x86
Downloaded From: www.bsit.zxq.net Processor Architecture 2.4.2 Video Output
The video adapter controls the display of text and graphics. It has two components: the video
controller and video display memory. All graphics and text displayed on the monitor are written
into video display RAM, where it is then sent to the monitor by the video controller. The video
controller is itself a special-purpose microprocessor, relieving the primary CPU of the job of
controlling video hardware.
Older Cathode-ray tube (CRT) video displays used a technique called raster scanning to display images. A beam of electrons illuminates phosphorus dots on the screen called pixels. Starting
at the top of the screen, the gun...
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