2--x86 Processor

The 828482c284 clock generator known simply as the

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Unformatted text preview: vices • Keyboard and mouse ports • PCI bus connectors for sound cards, graphics cards, data acquisition boards, and other inputoutput devices The following components are optional: • Integrated sound processor • Parallel and serial device connectors • Integrated network adapter • AGP bus connector for a high-speed video card Following are some important support processors in a typical system: • The Floating-Point Unit (FPU) handles floating-point and extended integer calculations. • The 8284/82C284 Clock Generator, known simply as the clock, oscillates at a constant speed. The clock generator synchronizes the CPU and the rest of the computer. • The 8259A Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) handles external interrupts from hardware devices, such as the keyboard, system clock, and disk drives. These devices interrupt the CPU and make it process their requests immediately. • The 8253 Programmable Interval Timer/Counter interrupts the system 18.2 times per second, updates the system date and clock, and controls the speaker. It is also responsible for constantly refreshing memory because RAM memory chips can remember their data for only a few milliseconds. • The 8255 Programmable Parallel Port transfers data to and from the computer using the IEEE Parallel Port interface. This port is commonly used for printers, but it can be used with other BS-IT Books, well. For Moreinput-output devices asNotes & Assignments visit: www.bsit.zxq.net 2.4 Components of Downloaded From: a Typical x86 Computer www.bsit.zxq.net 49 PCI and PCI Express Bus Architectures The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus provides a connecting bridge between the CPU and other system devices such as hard drives, memory, video controllers, sound cards, and network controllers. More recently, the PCI Express bus provides two-way serial connections between devices, memory, and the processor. It carries data in packets, similar to networks, in separate “lanes.” It is widely supported by graphics controllers, and can transfer data at abou...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2013 for the course CSE 451 taught by Professor Hussein during the Winter '13 term at Fatih Üniversitesi.

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