Lecture 13 Latin America

Lecture 13 Latin America - Lecture 13 Latin America I....

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I. Define Latin America Map 1) Geography : Mexico, most of Central and South America, and part of the West Indies 2) History: a common heritage (historical influence of Spain and Portugal ) II. Legacies of colonial rule 1. early subjugation and the demographic impact (die-off of native populations and the importation of slaves from Africa) 2. Religion: ascendancy of the Catholic Church 3. Ethnicity: three-layered ethnic heritage: Iberian (Europeans), Indian, and mestizo 1 . A long process of intermixing and assimilation; ethnicity-based collective identity comparative weak (compare to the U.S.) 4. Class conflict: A caste system – refers to the class conflict in Colonial Latin America - On the top: the animosity between Creoles (Spanish descendants born in the new world) and the peninsulares (immigrants from Spain) - mestizos - mulattoes (a person of mixed Spanish and African ancestry) and the Zambos (those of mixed African and Indian ancestry) - the lowest classes: Indians, free Africans, and African slaves 5. Political impact: the reproduction of the elitist and absolutist conceptions of social organization and rule 6. Economic impact: The emphasis on extraction (instead of cultivation) and a damage of Latin America’s long-range economic potential III. The New Order 1. Early Independence: the mid-1820s Impacts: 1) early completion of state formation (1903): the establishment of a new group of relatively impoverished and underpopulated states 2) the rise of caudillos (local military dictators) in many countries and a prominent military role in domestic affairs even under civilian rule Caudillismo : (Image of man, usually dictator, on horseback that gained power through corruption and fraud.) The practice or system of rule by a caudillo or a local dictator in Latin America Wallerstein – incorporation into international capitalist economy, but not accepted into core countries – were periphery countries that supplied the raw 1 A person of mixed European and Native American ancestry. 1
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Lecture 13 Latin America - Lecture 13 Latin America I....

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