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Costal Issues Exam 1

Costal Issues Exam 1 - Costal Issues Exam 1 Introduction...

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Costal Issues Exam 1 Introduction Costal zone: land and water adjacent to the coast that exert an influence on the uses of the sea and its ecology or whose uses and ecology are affected by the sea. Value: -beauty -unique habitats -food (costal fisheries) -safety (e.g. barrier islands) -natural filter (e.g. wetlands) -recreation (e.g. boating, sunbathing, swimming, diving) Pressures: -daily: wind and waves -storms: hurricanes, typhoons -development/tourism: increased population -global climate change Pressure exerted -nearly one in every two Americans in living within 50 miles of a By humans: coastline -two-thirds of the world’s population lives near the coast Development/ -increased runoff Tourism: -dependence on groundwater supply -pollution -waste disposal -over harvesting fisheries Infrastructure: -e.g. bridges, municipal wastewater treatment -ensuring safe transportation routes for local residents, paved roads and highways also allow more people access to more costal areas Sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the Development: ability of future generations to meet their own needs -it does not mean no growth -efficient resource and energy use -evaluate long term environmental impact Government -Balance: balancing of economic development and preservation of the Intervention: environment -energy production vs. preserving recreational and aesthetic qualities of beaches -building homes and resorts vs. preserving the ecosystem function Value of Costal Ecosystems Provisioning -products obtained from an ecosystem Services: -e.g. fish, medical resources, oil, minerals, freshwater, energy (hydropower), ornamental Regulating -benefits obtained from the regulation of the ecosystem Services: -e.g. natural hazard protection, climate regulation, mangroves provide less erosion and wave breaks (storm protection) Supporting -needed for the production of the ecosystem Services: -e.g. photosynthesis, water cycling, nutrient cycling Cultural services: -non-material benefits obtained from the ecosystem -e.g. spiritual, inspiration for art/writing, recreation (beach, boating), aesthetic Preserving -benefits for future use Services: -genetic stock Why put a price -people relate to cost and understand not to abuse the area Tag?: -we need a way to stop development/abuse Natural resource putting a dollar value on an ecosystem so we can compare it to priced Economics: goods. Types of Economic Analysis: Market Price: estimates economic values for ecosystem products or services that are bought or sold in commercial market Productivity: estimates economic value for ecosystem products/services that contribute to production of commercially marketed goods Hedonic pricing: estimates economic value for ecosystems/environmental services that
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directly affect market price of some other goods (e.g. housing market) Travel Cost: estimates economic values associated with ecosystem and sites that are used for recreation. Assumes that value of site is reflected in how much people are wiling to spend to travel to the site.
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Costal Issues Exam 1 - Costal Issues Exam 1 Introduction...

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