module2_psychnotes_1_17_08

module2_psychnotes_1_17_08 - between two things Positive...

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Module 2 Psychology 1/17/08-1/22/08 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Hindsight Bias - I knew it all along! …….when a couple breaks up….sports teams Confirmation Bias - Overconfidence—We look for information to confirm our preconceptions (lucky socks for sports to win…even though sometimes you lose) The Scientific Method - a process of discovery that depends on critical thinking. o Theory - statements that attempt to explain observable phenomena. Example - People who own lots of cats are anti-social o Hypothesis - Specific predictions based on theory. Example - the more cats people have, the fewer human friends they have. o Operational Definitions - precise description of variables used in research. Clear about what studying/testing Others can replicate study o Replication- continue to test Types of Studies - o Description -
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Correlation - a measure of how two things tend to go together A correlation coefficient is a statistical indicator of the degree of relatedness
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Unformatted text preview: between two things Positive Correlation-as one variable increases, another variable increases with it (people are taller they wear bigger shoes). Negative Correlation-as one variable increases, another variable decreases Case Study- Doesn’t give great detail Naturalistic Observation- sit, watch, and record information Survey- Random Sampling- everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected, so bias is minimized Causation-When we do correlational studies, we only check if there is a relationship between variables. CORRELATION DOES NOT CAUSE CAUSATION (Homework 1) o Experimentation- Psychologists use experiments to isolate cause and effect. Only variables of interest are manipulated. All other possible explanations are controlled. MAKE PREDICTIONS. Independent variable- the variable you change Dependent variable-outcome measure Random Assignment-...
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module2_psychnotes_1_17_08 - between two things Positive...

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