Course Hero Logo

chapter 4 outline.docx - 4-2-21 CELL STRUCTURE: CHAPTER 4...

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages.

4-2-21CELL STRUCTURE: CHAPTER 4I.CELLSA.Cell theory1.All organisms are composed of cells2.Cells are the smallest living thing3.Cells arise only from pre-existing cellsB.All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from the first living cells.C.Most cells are relatively small due reliance on diffusion of substance in and out of cells.D.Rate of diffusion affected by: 1.Surface area available2.Temperature3.Concentration gradient4.DistanceE.Surface area-to-volume ratio: as cell’s size increases its volume increases much more rapidly than its surface area.F.Organism made of many small cells has an advantage over organisms composed of fewer, larger cells.G.some cells overcome this limitation by being long and skinny (ex. Neurons)H.not many cells are visible to the naked eye (most less than 50 micrometers indiameter)I.Resolution – minimum distance two points can be apart and still be distinguished as two separate points1.Objects must be 100 micrometers apart for naked eye to resolve them as two objects rather than oneJ.Light Microscopes:1.Uses magnifying lenses with visible light2.Resolve structures that are 200nm apart3.Limit to resolution using lightK.Electron microscopes
1.Use beam of electrons 2.Resolve structures that are 0.3 nm apart3.Transmission electron microscopes transmit electrons through the material.4.Scanning electron microscopes beam electrons onto the specimen surface.L.Basic structural similarities between Prokaryote and Eukaryote 1.Nucleoid or nucleus where DNA is located 2.Cytoplasm: semi-fluid matrix of organelles and cytosol 3.Ribosomes: synthesize proteins4.Plasma membrane: phospholipid bilayer M.Cell movement: essentially all cell motion is tied to the movement of actin filaments, microtubules, or both1.Some cell crawl using actin microfilaments2.Flagella and cilia have 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules (not prokaryotic flagella; cilia are shorter and more numerous)N.Cell-to-cell interactions: surface proteins give cells identity1.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 5 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture