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ch 28, 29, 30, 31

ch 28, 29, 30, 31 - Chapter 28 1 Eukaryotic organisms that...

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Chapter 28 1. Eukaryotic organisms that aren’t plants, animals, or fungi. Ancestors of plants, animals, or fungi. 2. Origin of flexible cell surface, Origin of cytoskeleton, Origin of nuclear envelope, appearance of digestive vesicles, and endosymbiotic acquisition of certain organelles. 3. Because it has folds which allow for a higher surface area to exchange gas and nutrients 4. manages change in shape, distribute daughter chromosomes, move materials 5. phagocyte-motile cell, engulfs others, digests peroxisome- organelles able to disarm harmful products of 02 action 6. evolution of peroxisomes (ingesting and incorporating a prokaryote that was inside the phagocyte, evolved to peroxisome) 7. incorporation of a proteobacterium, evolved into mitochondrion 8. lateral gene transfer made this hard to see where other bacterial genes that encoded enzymes for energy metabolism. Eukarya could have arisen from mutualistic fusion (not endo) of Gram-negative bacterium and archaen. 9. mostly aquatic, unicellular, few are large multicell, heterotrophs or autotrophs (some switch) 10. hetero- require pre formed food auto- live on inorganic material 11. amoeboid motion- form pseudopods, false feet, extensions of changing body, Cilia are hairlike features that beat together to move, flagellum are long structures that move like a whip, pull or push. 12. they need a high surface area to volume ratio, they have folds/vesicles in the membrane 13. Expels excess water from the cell obtained during osmosis 14. Plasma membrane (amoeba), many have complex cell walls, some have internal shells, \ 15. Diplomonads- unicellular, no mitochondria, 2 nuclei, flagella (Giardia) Parabasalids- unicell, no mitochondria, flagella and undulating membrane (Trichomonas) Euglenozoans- unicell w/ flagella Euglenoids- mostly photoautotrophic (euglena) Kinetoplastids- have a single large mitochondrion (trypanosome) Alveolates- unicellular, cavities (alveoli) below cell surface Dinoflagellates- pigments give golden brown color (Gonyaulax) Apicomplexans- apical complex in spores for penetration of host (Plasmodium) Ciliates- Cilia, 2 types of nuclei (Paramecium) Stramenopiles- 2 unequal flagella, one with hairs Diatoms- Unicell, photoautotropic, 2 part cell walls, no flagella (Thalassiosira) Brown algae- Multicell, marine, photoautotrophic Oomycetes(watermolds, powdery mildew)- mostly coenocytic, hetero (saprolegnia)
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Red algae- no flagella, photoautotrophic, phycoerythrin, and phycocyanin (Chondrus, Polysiphonia) Chlorophytes (green algae)- photoautotrophic (ulva, volvox)
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ch 28, 29, 30, 31 - Chapter 28 1 Eukaryotic organisms that...

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