LAB7: PRIMATEDIVERSITYANDCLASSIFICATIONIn today’s lab, you will be using what you have learned about taxonomy and the characteristics of primates to 1) apply what you know to analyzing taxonomic relationships and 2) examine and differentiate between skeletal specimens of monkeys, apes, hominins(bipedal apes), and other animals. You’ll need the lecture slides open to complete this exercise.Part 1: Reading a cladogramExamine the cladogram on slide 9 in the lab lecture slides for this week. Answer the questions based on your knowledge of primate taxonomy and how cladograms are constructed.1.What primate familyis represented in this cladogram?The primate family that is represented in this cladogram is Hominidae (great apes and humans) 2.Which circle (identify the letter) indicates the last common ancestor of humans, common chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas?The last common ancestor of humans, common chimpanzees, bonobos, andgorillas would be the orangutans. 3.According to this cladogram, are bonobos more closely related to humans or to orangutans?According to the cladogram bonobos are closer related to humans than orangutans. Part 2: Homologous structuresExamine the image on slide 12 in the lab lecture slides for this week. Examine the similarities and differences between the bones from the different animals. The questions ask you to discuss similarities and differences in traits between the four limbs. Traits to consider include:The types of bones in each limbLength of the limb relative to the size of the animal’s bodyRobusticity of the bones: are the bones heavy or light for the animal’s bodysize?Length and robusticity of each bone compared to other bones in the same limbNumber of each type of bone1.What do you notice is generally similar across all the limbs? Which traits may be ancestral?
The traits that may be ancestral are in the bones which are ulna, carpals (wrist bones), Metacarpals and phalanges (hand and finger bones), radius.