HISTORY 2055 – EXAM 114:08Early Invasion:Columbus - Point man for the invasion There was already 50-100 million people in the New World.Accomplishments/Background Information:Initiates invasion.Sailor at age 10; Brother was a map maker.Motivation for sailing west was to find an easier way to Asia.Needed a benefactor Found Spain.Spain paid for ½ the costs and the rest was paid for by investors.Was promised 10% of profit & was told he could be governor of any land mass he found.No true picture of Columbus anywhere from when he was alive.Thought Asia was only 2,000 miles away from Europe.Biggest ship was only around 100 feet long.Takes 5 weeks to go from canary Islands to Bahamas & the crew was about to mutiny.They called the island sans Salvador.They then explored Cuba & Hispaniola (Present day Haiti & Dominican Republic).Thought he was in the Indonesian islands so he called the natives Indians.Aroaks were the natives & thought these men were fascinating & gave Columbus gifts of gold.Gold The currency in the old world.Columbus kidnaps some Aroaks to try & find the gold but didn’t find any, so Columbus took about 25 Aroaks back to Spain:Only 6 or 7 Aroaks survived the trip back to Spain.Columbus tells Spain how defenseless the Aroaks are & how they have gold:This convinces Spain to fund more trips.Columbus returns 3 times & on the 2nd trip, he comes with about 1500 men on 17 ships armed with muskets & cannons.
He finds only a small portion of gold, so instead he enslaves a few hundred Aroaks. Columbus eventually hits South America:He NEVER hit present-day US & died thinking he had found a waterway to Asia.Statement: Columbus discovered America:Problems with Interpretation:1. Native Americans discovered America.2. Statement is very Eurocentric.3. There is solid Archaeological evidence to say that the Vikings “discovered” America a few hundred years before Columbus.4. A lot of theories about earlier people finding America.Why start with Columbus?:1. He was the point-man.2. Didn’t discover a new world but brought attention to it.3. First to find & bring back information.4. Europe had been focusing on the Mediterranean Sea but they shifted their focus to the Atlantic Ocean.“Columbian Exchange”:1. Transfer of plants, animals, people, & diseases between East & West hemispheres.2. Natives had NO immunity whatsoever from diseases.
3. Spread through natives like wildfire, just 100 years after Columbus arrived AT LEAST ½ the population died.4. One disease Columbus brought back was syphilis.5. 1506 - Columbus dies.Spain – The First Empire:Initially settled in Caribbean, than South America, then Mexico.Met Aztecs in Mexico:Spain is very quick to conquer because Spain had weapons & diseases.Hernandez Cortez led the invasion.Spain brought small pox & it killed about ½ the Aztecs.They found more gold than they knew what to do with.Then, after defeating the Aztecs, they invade the Incans in Peru for the same reasons.Spain begins the