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Early InvasionA.Invasion vs. Settlement/ Colonization-Invasion more accurately describes historical processes.-Invasion: the act of invading, armed force into territory-Settlement: establishment of a new region, spreading of a new species.Was empty before, unlike Invasion. Americas were not empty, cultureswere set up and civilization already resided.B.Columbus, 1492: Settlement and Colonization of the Western Hemisphere byWestern Europeans-Columbus originally started invasions.-Myths:-Discovered America, proved the Earth was round= both myths-In 1492, educated people already new the Earth was round andColumbus was only trying to sail and find the Indias.-Viking resided here first, touched down on west coast.Columbus didn’t discover the Americas.-Real Importance of Columbus-Made 3 trips on ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria.-1streason: Point man that lead to permanent European invasionand settlement in the Americas.-2ndreason: Initialed the Columbian Exchange: (European Slaveand Indian) people, goods (gold, fruits vegetables), anddiseases (small pox, influenza, measles) between the old andnew world.-Tomato from Americas, cuisine from Europeans transformedover the years. Corn, potatoes, all came from Americas-Europeans were immune to diseases Indians were not. Diseasecaused more death than weapons. 80% of population diedbefore the 1600.Competed against one anotherC. Spain-Why 1492?-In 1491, white Christian Spaniards had fought with whiteMuslim Spaniards (moors) and finally won. Pushed themoors out of Spain, had to be Christian to stay in Spain.Reason why Columbus was able to sail to Americas.-Where?
-In Central and South America. California and Florida couldregulate trade. First permanent European settlement was in St.Augustine, Florida in 1565.-Gold, Glory, God-These characterized expeditions.-Gold and Silver was found in abundance in New Mexico.-Glory, conquers were glorified in the Spain public. Balboa,Cortez, Pizarro, went up and down coast and mapped the area.Cortez and Mexico City-God, Missionaries came over to baptize and convert thegodless people. “For God” used as justification for brutaltreatment and slavery for Indians and non-Christians thatwould not convert.-Colonized and striped the area of goods.D. Portugal-Why? When?-Shared Iberia peninsula with Spain and wanted in on gold.Early 1500, found a lot of Silver and gold but not as much asSpain.-Where?-Largely centered in present day Brazil. Portuguese (language)-Nature of Colonization-Plantations sugar and slaves. Large and vast brutal slavetreatment for plantationsE. France-Why? When?-Founded in 1608 in St. Gordes Rivers.-Where?-Great Lakes region, Canada, Ohio River Valley, Louisiana, andSmall islands in Caribbean.-Nature of Colonization-Not focused on permanent area, interested in trade. Experthunters to trade pelt and fur. Didn’t have slaves, treated NativeAmericas better than others. Looking for water routeF.Dutch (New Amsterdam)-Why? When?