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Chapter 6

Alcohol dependence includes physical dependence

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Unformatted text preview: ng, fights • Long term risks: alcoholism, cirrhosis brain atrophy • , breast and other cancers, heart disease, HIgher risk of suicide • Life expectancy 10-12 years less ALCOHOL ABUSE • DSM-IV Criterion Maladaptive pattern of use associated with • clinically significant despair or distress. RECURRENT USE OF ALCOHOL • • • • resulting in failure to fulfill responsibilities use in situations where potentially hazardous Related to legal problems despite persistent or recurrent social/ interpersonal problems. ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE: includes physical dependence, tolerance, greater amounts over time and withdrawal. DRUGS & THE BRAIN taking stimuli TOLERANCE - decreasing responsiveness to a drug over time with repeated use. WITHDRAWAL - Compensatory responses continue after drug use stops. stop using depressent Bodily Homeostasis The “crash” after use of cocaine or amphetamines The "crash" after use of cocaine or amphetamine CAUSES OF ALCOHOLISM * Not well established • GENETIC - * • identical twins higher concordance than fraternal twins. adopted children with alcoholic parent has higher rate of alcoholism than adopted children with non-alcoholic parents. D2 Dopamine receptor gene *but controversial BIOLOGICAL - children of alcoholics require higher levels of alcohol to produce similar effects of intoxication then, heavier drinking leads to greater dependence. CAUSES OF ALCOHOLISM PSYCHOLOGICAL • • • Personality (low self esteem) High anxiety or emotional plan (self medication) High stress and avoidant coping. ENVIRONMENTAL • Family use of alcohol (learned behavior) • Alcohol use is glamorized and associated with good times. • Peer pressure/ reinforced behavior OTHER DEPRESSANTS BARBITURATES 4 (Barbiturates) TRANQUILIZERS, SLEEPING PILLS, VALIUM • • • . Suppress the Nervous system by increasing the activity of GABA Highly addictive HIGH DOSES • • initial excitation, followed by depression Slurred speech, impaired co-ordination, and severe memory loss SUDDEN WITHDRAWAL • • after heavy use can cause death So, several months of gradual decreases in dose. n. [ NEXT LECTURE ...CLASSICAL CONDITIONING READING ….. Chapter 7...
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