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Unformatted text preview: ng, ﬁghts • Long term risks: alcoholism,
brain atrophy • , breast and other cancers, heart disease, HIgher risk of suicide • Life expectancy 10-12 years less ALCOHOL ABUSE
• DSM-IV Criterion
pattern of use associated with
• clinically signiﬁcant despair or distress.
RECURRENT USE OF ALCOHOL
• resulting in failure to fulﬁll responsibilities
use in situations where potentially hazardous Related to legal problems
despite persistent or recurrent
social/ interpersonal problems. ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE: includes physical dependence, tolerance, greater
amounts over time and withdrawal. DRUGS &
THE BRAIN taking
a drug over time
with repeated use. WITHDRAWAL
after drug use stops. stop
depressent Bodily Homeostasis The “crash” after use of cocaine or amphetamines The "crash" after use of cocaine or amphetamine CAUSES OF ALCOHOLISM
* Not well established
- * • identical twins higher concordance than fraternal twins.
adopted children with alcoholic parent has higher rate of
alcoholism than adopted children with non-alcoholic parents. D2 Dopamine receptor gene
*but controversial BIOLOGICAL
- children of alcoholics require higher levels of alcohol to
produce similar effects of intoxication
then, heavier drinking leads to greater dependence. CAUSES OF ALCOHOLISM PSYCHOLOGICAL
• Personality (low self esteem)
High anxiety or emotional plan (self medication)
High stress and avoidant coping. ENVIRONMENTAL
• Family use of alcohol (learned behavior)
• Alcohol use is glamorized and associated with good times.
• Peer pressure/ reinforced behavior OTHER DEPRESSANTS
(Barbiturates) TRANQUILIZERS, SLEEPING PILLS, VALIUM
Suppress the Nervous system by increasing the activity of GABA
Highly addictive HIGH DOSES
• initial excitation, followed by depression
Slurred speech, impaired co-ordination,
and severe memory loss SUDDEN WITHDRAWAL
• after heavy use can cause death
So, several months of gradual decreases in
dose. n. [ NEXT LECTURE ...CLASSICAL CONDITIONING READING ….. Chapter 7...
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