Test 1 Review part 3 - Fundamental Issues Variableany event situation behavior or individual characteristic that varies must have two or more levels o

# Test 1 Review part 3 - Fundamental Issues Variableany event...

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Fundamental Issues - Variable—any event situation behavior or individual characteristic that varies, must have two or more levels o Independent variable—the manipulated variable, the cause o Dependent variable—the measured variable, the effect o Construct validity—the adequacy of the operational definition of the variables - Relationships between variables o Positive linear relationship—increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable o Negative linear relationship—increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the other variable o Curvilinear relationship—nonmonotonic function, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of the other variable The direction of the relationship changes at least once o No relationship—graph is simply a flat line, there is no relationship between a change in one variable and a change in the other - Operational definition—the specific things you are going to measure or manipulate for your study, very specific way - Random variability (error variance) V systematic variability o Random variability—the variability we cant explain, they noise, within subjects variability o Systematic—variability you can explain, between groups/ between subjects variability, explained because of the manipulation o Does the systematic outweigh the random variability - Internal validity—says that you are able to make a causal claim about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, you don’t have this if you have a confound - External validity—generalizability, would the results of this study generalize to a larger population - Extraneous variable—a variable other than the independent variable that may have any effect on the dependent variable - Confound—an uncontrolled third variable that we know is operating (be able to recognize) - Random assignment to condition—subjects are equally likely to be in any condition - Demand characteristics—any cues in the research session that may communicate to subjects what the experimenter is testing, what they expect to find o Can change behavior so that they are not behaving in a way that they normal would o A lot of times the point of deception is to eliminate these demand characteristics - Realism—mundane, psychological, experimental, can be combination o Psychological realism—the impact of an experimental treatment or setting on subjects, occurs when subjects are caught up in the experiment and are truly
influenced by it, it is weak if subjects are unaffected by the treatment, is it meaningful and engaging to your subjects?

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