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Health Study Guide Midterm

Health Study Guide Midterm - Health Exam 1 Study Guide...

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Health Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 10: Managing Your Weight 61% of U.s. adults are either overweight or obese More than 500,000 lives lost each year to conditions related to obesity Health risks associated with being overweight: Diabetes Heart disease Stroke Hypertension Gallbladder disease Osteoarthritis Sleep apnea (stop breathing while asleep) Forms of cancer (uterine, breast, kidney, gallbladder, colorectal) Anorexia nervosa has been defined as a psychiatric illness since 1873 “Thin is In” message delivered by media Body structure, height, fat : lean tissue ratio, distribution of weight – factors to determine what weight is right for you Difficult to define obesity – men’s bodies should have between 11-15% body fat, women’s between 18-22% Essential fat – necessary for physiological functioning – about 3-7% of total body weight in men and 15% of total body weight in women – insulates body, cushions organs, maintains function – excess fat = storage fat BMI of 19-25 = healthy weight, greater than 25 puts you in danger of health risks U.S. Dietary Guidelines encourages a weight gain of no more than 10 lbs. after reaching adult height and endorses small weight losses of ½ - 1 pound per week if needed Problems with BMI calculations – doesn’t account for high muscle mass, conversely, elderly people may be in “healthy weight” category but have reduced nutritional reserves Pre menopausal women store fat in lower regions of body, while post menopausal and men store fat in the abdomen Environmental Risk Factors for Obesity: Ads for high calorie foods at low prices – larger portion sizes Changes in numbers of working people leads to more restaurant meals and fast food Bottle feeding infants increases energy intake relative to breast feeding Sedentary nature of jobs Use of cell phones, remote controls, and other labor saving devices Prevalence of Computer, TV, video games Fear of playing or being outside based on threat of violence Decline in PE requirements in schools Lack of community resources for exercise Hereditary – family history of obesity increases your risk of being obese by 25-30% 80% of children with 2 obese biological parents are also obese (doesn’t matter where or with whom you’re raised – identical twin studies) – proves that your genes = a major factor
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Specific Obesity Genes??? Testing being done – possibilities include: Ob gene – disrupts body’s “I’ve had enough to eat” signaling system Leptin – a protein produced by Ob gene – signals the brain when you are full and need to stop eating – do not work properly in obese people GLP-1 – slows down passage of food through intestines to allow absorption of nutrients Obese people more likely to eat to satisfy their hunger and not for nutritional reasons Parents who allow children to eat without restriction and become overweight are setting
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