Microbiology Day 21 - Microbiology April 2nd Plasmid and...

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Microbiology April 2 nd Plasmid and Conjugation Slide 1 Conjugation can happen in two ways: 1) Plasmid can directly flow from one cell to another 2) Rolling circle, where it replicates through a pilli This is not transformation since its not naked Slide 3 VanB can go into a plasmid and go into excision and go into a larger piece of DNA that can be passed by, so different kinds of conjugate plasmid. Slide 4 In conjugative plasmids, the genetic elements need to be able to replicate independently of the chromosome. In conjugative transposons, the gen element need to integrate into another element to be replicated. Both types need the tra genes to form conjugate transfer. Slide 5 Typically circular and some are linear. Generally, they are 1-10kb but you can find larger ones. The host range can be broad or narrow, but depends on promoter and origins since they both have to be recognized by DNA replication elemtns Copy number varies and refers to the number of copies of the plasmid, and we can have about 1-5 copies in a cell. A high number would be greater then 20 and this is what you want to use for biotech. That’s because 1) you want more DNA there, 2) we want to express a lot of protein if its an expression plasmid. It confers adaptaion in certain environments by conferring antiobitic resistance, but depends on environment. Some plasmids can integrate into the chromosome and is called an episomes. If the plasmid is lost, it is called curing. How can this happen? There’s a lack of selective pressure and doesn’t need it. So since it uses a lot of energy, it would be selective against. So you would need the presence of antibiotic for curing not to occur. It’s not like you get rid of plasmid, but environment selects for the bacteria that doesn’t have it Slide 6
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R plasmids have lots of genes. An ABC transporter is a cell membrane transporter. On a plasmid, it can be used to bring in nutrient or antibiotics.
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