Microbiology Day 19 - Microbiology March 26 DNA Exchange...

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Microbiology March 26 DNA Exchange Slide 36 Iron can affect this and it can affect the protein through certain mechanism: 1) Iron ions are often key, as in hemoglobin, to create the quaternary structure. It depends which one it affecs, but we can see the toxins on the prophage (which is the piece of viral genome in bacterial genome). Many pathogenic genes have a viral origin. DTxR represses the expression of tox and the repressor doesn’t work when iron levels are low. There’s ppl from Britain, which historically have high concentration of iron in blood. In this case, they are more susceptible to iron toxicity Norton website, Cholera toxin video, Ch 25 Bacteria uses the microvilli to stick on and get into the stomach. Adherence ability is one of the first step for any pathogenic interaction, so you make genes that can help or hinder this interaction. SO its not just the poison, but how you deliver that toxin. Anything that affects the gut is called entero-. This would be an exotoxin since its being made and secreted out. It attaches to a glycolipid (gangloiside GM1). We usually associate ganglioside with nerves. Slide 35 This is similar idea, where fusion with endosome changes the pH. IN cholera, it goes through the ER system where it will get modified. They both essentially are doing the same thing (as cholera). So cholera has been altered in ER and is then sent to cytoplasm. The cholera modifies a G protein (which is usually made of inactive alpha (with GDP), beta and gamma). So cAMP is like messenger affects and it will be lost. Toxin will bind and will affects the ef2 (elongation factor). Adenylate stays activated for a long period, increasing cAMP tremendously. This makes protein kinase A activates many channels, including CFTR. This will export chloride ions and water will also leave, leading to diarrhea.
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