Unformatted text preview: 1940s/1950s World War II: Emergence of “miracle drugs” (Penicillin and streptomycin) and antibiotics. Increased dependence on drugs for treatment and cure of diseases/illness. Psychiatry emerges to treat depression (war-related) 1960s Introduction of Medicare and Medicaid: recognition of rising costs of health care and restricted access to it sparked government intervention. 1970s Mainstream biomedical system was scientifically based, hospital-centered, and had an erratic fee system. “…overly specialized, overbuilt and overbedded, and insufficiently attentive to the need of the poor in inner-city and rural areas”. Caused a surge of drastic reforms. Late 1970s Sunrise Model: Leininger showed that cultural factors have and influence on their behavior, well-being, and outcome to the cure. Had nurses consider emic and etic ways of treating patients. Separated emotional from scientific caring....
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- Fall '08
- Physician, American Medical Association, medical school programs, future medical professions