Biomedical Timeline - 1940s/1950s World War II Emergence of...

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1846 “…almost any man with an elementary education could take a course of lectures for one or two winters, pass an examination and thereby automatically achieve the right to practice medicine by state law…” The early requirements for becoming a medical doctor. Drastically different from today’s standards. 1847 American Medical Association founded. Helped bring together physicians ideas and actively participate in shaping the medical system. Set high academic and scientific standards for future medical professions. 1910 Flexner Report: Improved the quality of medical school programs. Increased male majority because women had fewer schools to apply to, lead to women exclusion policies. Racial attributes contributed, and African Americans had lesser school and were only there to treat other African Americans. 1929 Medicine becoming more scientific while medical histories become oriented towards patients (instead of being just non-critical histories as references for doctors).
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Unformatted text preview: 1940s/1950s World War II: Emergence of “miracle drugs” (Penicillin and streptomycin) and antibiotics. Increased dependence on drugs for treatment and cure of diseases/illness. Psychiatry emerges to treat depression (war-related) 1960s Introduction of Medicare and Medicaid: recognition of rising costs of health care and restricted access to it sparked government intervention. 1970s Mainstream biomedical system was scientifically based, hospital-centered, and had an erratic fee system. “…overly specialized, overbuilt and overbedded, and insufficiently attentive to the need of the poor in inner-city and rural areas”. Caused a surge of drastic reforms. Late 1970s Sunrise Model: Leininger showed that cultural factors have and influence on their behavior, well-being, and outcome to the cure. Had nurses consider emic and etic ways of treating patients. Separated emotional from scientific caring....
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