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Unformatted text preview: Number GWe Fuel Coolant Moderator 252 235 water water 92 83 water water 34 13 CO2 graphite Canada 33 18 enriched
U O2 heavy
water heavy water Russia 14 14.6 water graphite Japan,
TOTAL 4 1.3 enriched
U O2 liquid
sodium none 5
365 Source: Nuclear Engineering International handbook 1999, but including Pickering A in Canada. Difficulties in running nuclear reactors
• Start-up is slow
• Shut-down is even slower, as radioactive fission
products continue to decay (6% of full power,
and dropping off later)
• Keeping coolant running
• Avoiding leaks or radioactive releases Future reactor development:
Towards “Gen IV” reactors Active nuclear plants around the world (2011) Fuel rods Pack UO2 fuel into
small pellets How do we get the
UO2 fuel pellets in
the first place? The nuclear fuel cycle
Reprocessing Uranium is a finite resource!
Current Uranium cost ~ $80/kg (just a few percent of cost of
BUT as we it gets more expensive the more we mine,
because we first deplete the eas...
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This document was uploaded on 12/05/2013.
- Fall '13