Lect14 -- Nuclear Principles

6 water graphite japan france russia russia japan

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Unformatted text preview: Number GWe Fuel Coolant Moderator 252 235 water water 92 83 water water 34 13 CO2 graphite Canada 33 18 enriched U O2 enriched U O2 natural U (metal), enriched U O2 natural U O2 heavy water heavy water Russia 14 14.6 water graphite Japan, France, Russia Russia, Japan TOTAL 4 1.3 enriched U O2 PuO2 and U O2 liquid sodium none 5 434 0.2 365 Source: Nuclear Engineering International handbook 1999, but including Pickering A in Canada. Difficulties in running nuclear reactors •  Start-up is slow •  Shut-down is even slower, as radioactive fission products continue to decay (6% of full power, and dropping off later) •  Keeping coolant running •  Avoiding leaks or radioactive releases Future reactor development: Towards “Gen IV” reactors Active nuclear plants around the world (2011) Fuel rods Pack UO2 fuel into small pellets How do we get the UO2 fuel pellets in the first place? The nuclear fuel cycle 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Mining Refining Enrichment Power generation Reprocessing Uranium is a finite resource! Current Uranium cost ~ $80/kg (just a few percent of cost of nuclear power) BUT as we it gets more expensive the more we mine, because we first deplete the eas...
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This document was uploaded on 12/05/2013.

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