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Lect14 -- Nuclear Principles

Lect14 -- Nuclear Principles - GEOL 241 Fall 2013 Lecture...

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GEOL 241 Fall 2013 Lecture 14: Nuclear Power – The Poten<al …or are we…?
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Energy released per kg of fuel (J/kg) Coal burning 24 x 10 6 (3 kWh) Gasoline burning 46 x 10 6 Nuclear fission 83 x 10 12 (50000 kWh) CO 2 released (kg) per kWh energy produced Coal burning 0.963 Oil burning 0.881 Nuclear fission 0 Why nuclear? Lots of energy per kg fuel and no CO 2 !
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Why nuclear? Lots of nuclear fuel (uranium) around
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Country %Nuclear France 77 Belgium, Slovakia 54 S. Korea, Ukraine, Slovenia, Hungary 25-47 Sweden, Switzerland, 5 others US**, Japan*, Germany*, 6 others 15-20 *Plans announced to phase out nukes **Note that the US has nearly 2x more reactors than any other country and produces 25% of total nuclear energy % of electricity from nuclear power
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What is nuclear power? In a conventional nuclear power plant: a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction heats water to produce high-pressure steam that turns turbines which generate electricity. Simple. But let’s figure out just how this all works, and why.
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Fission = splitting of an atom, e.g. uranium-235, that releases energy Atom splitting also releases neutrons Free neutrons cause other atoms to split – a chain reaction occurs In a nuclear power plant, the chain reaction is kept under control www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt Nuclear Fission
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The nucleus made up of protons and neutrons proton has positive charge; mass = 1.007276 a.m.u. neutron has no charge; mass = 1.008665 a.m.u. proton by itself (hydrogen nucleus) will last forever neutron by itself will “decay” with a half-life of 10.4 min The atom What is an atom? basic building block of all matter central nucleus surrounded by cloud of negatively charged electrons
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The a.m.u is based on 12 C: 6 protons, 6 neutrons, 6 electrons defined to be 12.0000000000 a.m.u. If we add the constituent masses: protons: 6 × 1.00727647 = 6.04365876 neutrons: 6 × 1.008664923 = 6.051989538 electrons: 6 × 0.000548579909 = 0.0032914 all together: 12.09894 Wait, this isn’t 12.000000 – instead it’s 0.82% higher!! Puzzle #1: what could possibly lower the mass so that 12 C is 12.000000 a.m.u.? The atomic mass unit ( a.m.u .)
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Puzzle #1: what could possibly lower the mass of 12 C so that it is 12.000000 a.m.u.? Puzzle #2: the nucleus is made of positively charged protons, but we know that like charges repel each other so why doesn’t the nucleus fall apart? The puzzles of the atom
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Puzzle #2: the nucleus is made of positively charged protons, but we know that like charges repel each other so why doesn’t the nucleus fall apart? There must be a force holding the nucleus together! This must be stronger than the electromagnetic force that repels the protons It must operate over only short distances – so that it can be very strong (enough to hold nucleus together) but not observable at long distances It is called the “STRONG FORCE” Puzzle #1: what could possibly lower the mass of 12 C so that it is 12.000000 a.m.u.?
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