ENGRI_111_14_photonics5 - EN GRI 111 Opti cal Fi ber s...

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Unformatted text preview: EN GRI 111 Opti cal Fi ber s Refraction ni /nr = si nr /si ni i r Total Internal Reflection n1 > n2 Light moves faster Refracted angle larger Critical incident angle above which light does not escape n1 n2 i3 i2 i1 r3 r2 r1 Single Mode Fiber omlc.ogi.edu Optical Fiber Requirements Contai n l i ght Total i nter nal r efl ecti on No defects No l oss of i ntensi ty L ow attenuati on (dB/ km) Causes of Attenuation Absor pti on Atomi c i mpur i ti es (l ook i nto the edge of wi ndow gl ass) OH gr oups absor b I R exci tati ons to hi gher vi br ati onal state Sca tter i ng by fl aws and i mpur i ti es Depends on r el ati ve si ze of par ti cl es and wavel ength of l i ght Refl ecti on by connector s Absorption: Impurities e e e Ec h e Ec h h Ev Ev Donor Level Similar with Acceptor Levels Transitions in Vibrational States Excited States h Ground State Vibrational states are accessible with IR radiation, 10-2 eV Scattering www.physics.csbsju.edu Cladding and Multiplexing www.its.bldrdoc.gov www.indiamart.com Role of Cladding Defects on fiber surface can also cause loss Light lost here The Discovery D ona l d Keck Rober t M a ur er Peter Schul tz Cor ni ng The Discovery 1970 Only 1 % of light was transmitted at the end of 1 km fiber Attenuation of optical fibers < 1 dB/km Core and Cladding: SiO2 Purification Si O2 + C Si + CO2 Si + H Cl Si Cl 4 + H2 Si Cl 4 + O2 Si O2 + Cl 2 How to make the core and cladding layers? Manufacturing O 2 + Si Cl 4 + GeCl 4 Why is Ge included in the core? Manufacturing O 2 + Si Cl 4 + GeCl 4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2008 for the course ENGRI 1110 taught by Professor Giannelis during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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ENGRI_111_14_photonics5 - EN GRI 111 Opti cal Fi ber s...

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