A&P I Module 2.pdf - NursingABC - Module 4/18/19, 8(26 AM...

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4/18/19, 8(26 AMNursingABC - ModulePage 1 of 34General Anatomy of the Respiratory System09:13Gross anatomyis the study of the organs and structures of the human body visible to the naked eye. Whenlooking at the lungs from a gross anatomical perspective, the lungs are paired and found in the chest cavity(Figure 2.1). Notice that the lungs are not symmetrical. The right lung has three lobes: superior, middle, andinferior. The left has two lobes: superior and inferior. This asymmetry is due the position of the heart which issituated slightly to the left of the median plane. The hilum is known as the “root” of the lung. This is wherethe pulmonary vessels and bronchi enter each lung(Figure 2.2). Healthy lung tissue has a very light textureand is peachy/pink in color.
4/18/19, 8(26 AMNursingABC - ModulePage 2 of 34Figure 2.1 Anterior view: Gross anatomy of lungs.The right lung has three lobes (superior, middle,inferior) while the left lung has two lobes (superior, inferior). The right and left lung both have obliquefissures separating the lobes. The right lung also has a horizontal fissure separating the superior and middlelobes.
4/18/19, 8(26 AMNursingABC - ModulePage 3 of 34Figure 2.2 View of Hilum (root) of right lung.The hilum (highlighted in blue) is where the pulmonaryvessels and bronchi enter through each lung.Thepleuraeare membranes that cover the surface of the lung and the cavity surrounding the lungs. Thevisceral pleuradirectly covers the lungs and theparietal pleuracovers the surfaces surrounding the lungs:the rib cage, diaphragm, and mediastinum. The space that is formed between the pleurae is called thepleural spaceor cavity. Normally, this space is empty except for a scant amount of fluid. However, in thediseased state, this cavity can fill with air or fluids. The pleurae reduce friction and provide a negativepressure environment needed for lung inflation. The pleurae also help to pull the lungs open with the chestwall during inhalation.The anatomical organization of the respiratory system allows the respiratory system to perform three mainfunctions: 1) Air conduction, 2) Air filtration, and 3) Exchange of Gases. This third step is also calledrespiration. The respiratory system also has roles in vocalizations, the sense of smell, and the body’s pHregulation. The body’s pH regulation is discussed further in Anatomy and Physiology II. Carbon dioxideforms carbonic acid which must be buffered with bicarbonate ions.
4/18/19, 8(26 AMNursingABC - ModulePage 4 of 34The following outlines the major portions of the respiratory system:a. Conducting portioni. Nostril -Nasal Cavitiesii. Pharynx: Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynxiii. Larynxiv. Tracheav. Paired (primary, secondary, tertiary) bronchi (bronchi is the plural form of bronchus)b. Filtration portion

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