A&P I Module 7.pdf - NursingABC - Module 4/25/19, 6*46 PM...

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4/25/19, 6*46 PMNursingABC - ModulePage 1 of 21Anatomy of the Integumentary SystemNotice:To optimize your learning in this course, we advise that you complete the labs and modules asindicated in the BIOD 151 Lab Schedule.Introduction to the Integumentary SystemThe Integumentary systemis comprised of theskin, hair and nails.Skinis the largest organ of the body. Itis made up of theepidermis(outer layer)dermis(middle layer) and thehypodermis(inner, also calledsubcutaneoustissue layer). SeeFigure 7.1, below to see the three layers of the skin. Skin cells absorbultraviolet radiation to produce vitamin D, which is used to promote bone development. The integumentarysystem contains the sensory receptors and glands used for protection of the skin and underlying tissues.The integumentary system plays an important role in protecting internal organs from extreme temperaturechanges as well as pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms. If the integumentary system is damagedand microbes or foreign objects make their way into the body, it is thelymphatic systemthat is responsiblefor mounting the attack to defend the body’s internal environment.Figure 7.1 The three layers of the skin: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis.The epidermis is adhered
4/25/19, 6*46 PMNursingABC - ModulePage 2 of 21to the basement membrane (highlighted in blue).Sensory organsThe skin contains several types of sense organs, each one specialized to detect a certain type of sensoryinput(Figure 7.2).Merkel’s cellsandMeissner's corpusclesaremechanoreceptorswhich detectmechanical sensory information in the form of light touch and vibration.Nociceptorsdetect pain, such asfrom a pin prick.Pacinian corpusclesdetect the mechanical sensory information of pressure applied to theskin.Thermoreceptorsdetect hot and cold. Sensory organs embedded in the skin are designed to detectsensory information and then to relay that information to the brain. The brain then interprets the informationto determine an appropriate response.Figure 7.2 Sensory organs embedded within the layers of the skin.GlandsRecallendocrine glandssecretehormoneswhich are secreted in the bloodstream for body-wide distribution.Exocrine glandscontain secretions which are released through aduct(opening) into an epithelial surfaceor lining. Exocrine gland secretions can also release their contents onto the surface of the skin. Other types
4/25/19, 6*46 PMNursingABC - ModulePage 3 of 21of exocrine glands release their contents into an epithelial surface. (Recall, for example, that salivaryamylase is released into the mouth.)Exocrine glands can be categorized by their shape and structure. Most glands in the body aremulticellularglands, which are set within epithelial tissue and release their contents through a duct to the surface.

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Term
Fall
Professor
WORKMAN
Tags
Stratum Corneum

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