biology - Sensory ocelli planarian ommatidia compound eyes amacrine horizontal connect bipolar to ganglion retinal visual pigment opsin membrane

biology - Sensory ocelli planarian ommatidia compound...

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Sensory ocelli - planarian ommatidia - compound eyes amacrine + horizontal - connect bipolar to ganglion retinal - visual pigment opsin - membrane protein (7 alpha helices) rhodopsin - type of GPCR, cis (inactive) and trans (active) --> active causes cGMP to close sodium channel (hyperpolarization) photopsin - visual pigment for cones lateral inhibition - horizontal cell inhibits distant photoreceptors lateral geniculate nucleus taste buds use GPCR (and ENaCs) sour is transient receptor potential eustachian tube - equalize pressure semicircular canal - equilibrium (balance) tympanic membrane (eardrum) cochlea - vestibular canal (perilymph) - oval window - Reissner's membrane - cochlear duct (organ of corti) (endolymph) - tympanic canal (perilymph) - body movement vestibule - movement - tectorial membrane - basilar membrane - round window - dissipates waves volume - amplitude pitch - frequency vestibule - movement
utricle saccule cupula - gelatinous material that holds hair cells (otoliths press on hair)
Endocrine Peptide - larger precursors (ex. Proinsulin insulin + C protein), hydrophilic Steroid - cholesterol, hydrophobic, adrenal cortex, skin, gonads, placenta Amine - tryptophan (melatonin), tyrosine (catecholamines [act like peptide], thyroid [act like steroid]) Hydrophilic fast Hydrophobic slow Posterior pituitary ADH Oxytocin Anterior pituitary FLAT PEG Hypophyseal portal system move neurohormones
Nervous Nernst E ion = log 61.5 𝑧 [𝑖??]??? [𝑖??]𝑖? Ca2+ = +160 mV Na+ = +60 mV Cl- = -70 mV K+ = -90 mV Glial - Oligodendrocytes - myelin in CNS - Astrocyte - BBB, nutrients - Ependymal cell - produce CSF - Microglia - immune, mesoderm - Schwann - myelin in PNS Neuroplasticity + synaptic pruning Long term potentiation Broca’s area - speech Wernicke’s area - hearing + language comprehension Neocortex - 6 parallel layers of neurons on outside of cerebral cortex Suprachiasmatic nucleus - light to synchronize biological clock Radial glia - new neurons migrate from neural tube Neural tube - give rise to CNS Ionotropic - directly linked to ion pore Metabotropic - indirectly linked to ion pore via second messenger Acetylcholine - muscles! Ligand-gated channel at NMJ, metabotropic receptor in CNS + heart (inhibits adenylyl cyclase in heart, slow heart rate) Amino acids - glutamate (excitatory), gamma-aminobutyric acid (inhibitory), glycine (inhibitory) Biogenic amines - epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine (tyrosine), serotonin (tryptophan) alpha adrenergic (stimulate effector, norepinephrine,coupled to Gq) and beta adrenergic (calm effector, epinephrine, coupled to Gs) Neuropeptides - metabotropic receptors, substance P (excitatory + pain), endorphins Gas - NO (metabotropic receptor, smooth muscles), CO (heme oxygenase, regulate hypothalamic hormones, inhibitory in PNS) Excitatory postsynaptic potential
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
Reproductive Follicles w oocytes (estradiol) corpus luteum (estradiol + progesterone) Primordial germ cell spermatogonial stem cell spermatogonia primary spermatocyte secondary spermatocyte early spermatid sperm Sertoli - nutrients Acrosome - hyaluronidase and acrosin penetrate egg Primordial germ cell oogonium primary oocyte secondary oocyte

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