Lecture 14 French Rococo (1) - ARTH1441 ARTH1441...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Instructor: Lydia J. Dorsey Department of Art History LSU School of Art & Design Outline Lecture 14 Outline Lecture 14 Characteristics of the Rococo style Rococo interior designs and ceiling painting in France and Venice, Italy Antoine Watteau and fairground culture in the eighteenth century Rococo Art and the French Aristocracy: Boucher, Fragonard Rococo sculpture: Clodion Key Terms/Concepts Key Terms/Concepts Rococo Rocaille Aristocracy Hôtel Salon Femme savants Italian comedy (Comédie Italienne) Fête Galante Poussinistes Rubenistes Characteristics of the Characteristics of the Rococo style After the death of Louis XIV (1715): Regency period (1715­1723) Ideals of the age of Louis XIV: self­discipline, self­sacrifice, denial of one’s interest for the higher good (the good of the State):the âge classique versus Rococo culture of the Regency Nobility moves from Versailles to Paris: longed for pleasure, amusement Characteristics of the Rococo style Characteristics of the Nobility builds so­called Hôtels (town houses) in Paris Salons inside were the central location of Rococo aristocratic society where the wealthy and famous would get together and try to outdo each other Pleasure, sensuality, indulgence in luxury becomes fashionable: music making, theater, fine arts play important role in lifestyle Rise of Rococo style from rocaille: “little shell,” shell decorations abound Background: dawn of the early modern age; discovery of individuality, pursuit happiness, emphasis on worldly pleasure and beauty Woman, called “femme savants” (learned women) became very important in Rococo society and culture often as tastemakers and patrons Rococo Interior Designs Rococo Interior Designs Germain Boffrand, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, 1737­1740 A great example of the Hôtels (town houses)designed in Paris after 1715 Centrally located in the Marais district of Paris Classically inspired Baroque façade: somewhat plain and unassuming compared to the interior Boffrand: Rococo Interior Design Boffrand: Rococo Interior Design Germain Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, 1737­1740, Paris (with painting by Charles­Joseph Natoire and sculpture by J. B. Lemoine) Rococo period rich in decorative programs designed specifically for one building: total works of art including interior, furniture, light fixtures, painting, and sculptures Commissioned by Hôtel’s owner, Prince Hercule Mériadec de Soubise, for his marriage Feminine influence in the Boffrand: Rococo Interior Design Boffrand: Rococo Interior Design Curving tendrils, rocaille shells, sprays of foliage— organic forms and effect of freely growing nature Painting, sculptures integrated into wall paneling Gilded plaster moldings; stark contrasts with whites, blue imitating the sky Luxury good: mirrors> fashion started with Versailles Eight Spandrels: oil paintings by French academic painter Charles Natoire: History of Psyche Rare occasion of a completely preserved Rococo interior De Cuvilliés: Rococo Interior Design De Cuvilli Exterior of the Amalienburg, park of the Nymphenburg palace, Munich, early 18th century Small “pleasure” pavilion in the park of a larger residence near Munich Rich Rococo interior designed by a French artist French culture in demand across courts in Europe; model: Versailles De Cuvilliés: Rococo Interior Design De Cuvilli François de Cuvilliés, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, early 18th century Mirrors (after Versailles model), crystal chandeliers, gilded plaster molding, contrast gold and white Silvery touch through mirrors amplifies the light from the windows Shapes and contours weave rhythmically –everything seems organic and in motion Ultimate luxury statement and refinement of illusion Sumptuous, but cold atmosphere De Cuvilliés: De Cuvilli Rococo Interior Design Another view Notice the “rocaille” patterns used for stucco decorations The Tiepolos: The Eighteenth­Century Venetian Ceiling Painting Giambattista Tiepolo, The Apotheosis of the Pisani Family, Ceiling fresco from the Villa Pisani, Stra, 1761­1762 Venice in the 18th century: political decline, but artistic heyday Great demand for decorative, luxurious, yet airy ceiling paintings by The Tiepolos: The Tiepolos: Eighteenth­Century Venetian Ceiling Painting Giambattista Tiepolo and his two sons corner the market for illusionistic ceiling decorations for palaces in Venice Particularly in demand: frescoes that celebrate the virtues and accomplishments of the family owning the palazzo Pisano family: rich Venetian patricians, politically influential Executed in the baroque tradition of ceiling painting but with the bright, cheerful colors, and relaxed compositions of Rococo easel paintings Exudes grace and elegance, family elevated to status of gods The Tiepolos: The Eighteenth­Century Venetian Ceiling Painting Giambattista Tiepolo and sons, Grand Staircase with Apollo and the Four Continents, Residence Palace, Würzburg, 1750­ 1752, ceiling fresco The art of the Tiepolos in demand not only in Venice, but across Europe, especially in Germany The Tiepolos: The Tiepolos: Eighteenth­Century Venetian Ceiling Painting In 1750 Giambattista and his two sons set out to Germany complete their biggest commission ever Patron: a local ruler, thePrince­ Bishop Karl Philipp von Greiffenklau Wants magnificent ceiling for his recently completed Residenz (palace) in Würzburg The Tiepolos: The Eighteenth­Century Venetian Ceiling Painting Center of the composition: Sun god Apollo rising to the skies, surrounded by a halo of sun rays Apollo=von Greiffenklau Inspired ultimately by Louis XIV and Versailles Von Greiffenklau imitates the French “Sun King” Louis XIV(aspires to similar divine status) The Tiepolos: The Eighteenth­Century Venetian Ceiling Painting Corners of the ceiling with Apollo in the center: Allegorical representations of the four continents Here: “America” Represented by native Americans Africa with camels as attributes of the continent; rich costumes Asia with elephants, turbans The Tiepolos: The Eighteenth­Century Venetian Ceiling Painting Europe as center of learning and the culture of classical antiquity The Royal French Academy of Painting and The Royal French Academy of Painting and Sculpture Established in 1648 during the reign of King Louis XIV to instruct and oversee the next generation of artists working for the French courts From the seventeenth to the twentieth century, professional artistic production in France was controlled by the Academy—no longer by guilds Established to monitor, foster, critique and protect French cultural production, and in art it was meant Prospective students had to submit a reception piece to be accepted: normally members of the aristocracy or the bourgeoisie would be accepted Pedagogy of the Academy was based on the “Grand Manner” of painting proposed first by Poussin involving a rigorous, strict approach to formal compositions and the elevation of “history painting” as the ultimate form of aggrandizing French art Student moved through various levels of instruction, beginning with on copying engravings and drawing busts, then moving on to still lifes, and finally live nude models and painting classes French Royal Academy’s Hierarchy of French Royal Academy’s Hierarchy of Genres The Parisian Salon The Parisian Salon the Académie de peinture et sculpture organized official art exhibitions called salons. To show at a salon, a young artist needed to be received by the Académie by first submitting an artwork to the jury; only Acad émie artists could be shown in the salons—very conservative jury In 1725, the Salon was held in the Palace of the Louvre, when it became known as Salon or Salon de Paris. In 1737, the exhibitions became public and were held, at first, annually, and then biannually in odd number years The Salon exhibited paintings floor­to­ceiling and on every available inch of space—form of entertainment for the aristocracy and bourgeoisie alike, a place to see and be seen Between 1748–1890 it was the greatest annual or biannual art event in the Western world where France’s greatest artist competed for fame, often causing uproar and scandal with political, sexual, or otherwise controversial subject matter The Parisian Salon: a social affair Parisian Fairground Culture in the Parisian Fairground Culture in the Early Eighteenth Century The Foire Saint­Germain in early 18th­century Paris Sideshow with street theaters, tightrope dancers, trained animals, former actors ofthe Italian Comedy (Comédie italienne) pantomimes; also illegal gambling, prostitution Art sales, dispersed former assistants from Rubens workshop in Antwerp blend in Environment inspiring for Rococo painter Watteau: site of pleasure and frivolity Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau: Painter of the Antoine Watteau, L’Indifférent, c. 1716, oil on canvas Actor on stage Costume of satin cloth Pose and title (“the indifferent One”) suggest a carefree life Watteau’s inspiration: theatrical presentations, especially street theater of the type at the Saint­ Germain fair Art form appreciated in particular by the French nobility (client base) Background: wildly untamed nature Languid gliding dancer emerging from atmosphere of color, lighter tonalities Size difference: 10 ft vs. 10 in Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau: Painter of the Antoine Watteau, Gilles (Pierrot), 1721, oil on canvas Another actor portrait Italian comedy (Comédie Italienne) had a stock repertoire of roles>easily recognizable by of costume Gilles (Pierrot): melancholic dupe: white satin dress with ruff as identifying marks Other Italian actors, donkey in background Expression of melancholy appreciated by audiences The French Royal Academy of Painting and The French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture: A House Divided Poussinistes Favored teaching that form was the most important element in painting “colors in paintings are as allurements for persuading the eyes” colors were additions for effect and not really essential Classical baroque Rubenistes took Rubens as its model proclaimed the natural supremacy of color and the coloristic style as the artist’s guide Rococo painting reflected this approach Fête Galante Top: Poussin Bottom: Rubens Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau: Painter of the Antoine Watteau,Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717, oil on canvas ( Louvre Version) Watteau’s most famous picture, exists in two versions Painted as a reception piece for the French Academy of Painting and Sculpture Hierarchy of Academic genres: History/Religious>Portrait s> Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau was “received”(admitted as an academic painter) in a genre (category) created for him (very unusual) Painter of Fête Galante Fête Galante: (amorous festival) Scene with figures in a landscape enjoying themselves (compare: Titian’s Feast of the Gods) Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau: Painter of the Iconography remains unclear: pilgrimage or departure from the island of Cythera by a party of sumptuously dressed members of the nobility Cythera: island of love Right: stages of courtship leading to marriage Right: swarm of putti (cherubs) in the air Gliding poses exude elegance, poise and refinement of aristocracy and suave gentility Exquisite shades of hazy color Theme based on a contemporary theater piece by Florent Carton Dancourt The Three Cousins (Les Trois Cousines, 1700) Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Antoine Watteau, Return from Cythera, 1718, oil on canvas (Berlin­Dahlem Version) Second version of composition, commissioned by aristocratic German collector Larger Statue of Venus to right; ship in background more pronounced Rococo art popular until outbreak of French Revolution (1789), thereafter persecuted as art of decadent and corrupt aristocracy Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau: Painter of the Antoine Watteau, Gersaint’s Signboard, 1720, oil on canvas View of the interior of the shop of the art dealer Gersaint Initially commissioned as his shop sign Subject: Aristocratic clientele buying Rococo art, gives us insight into the process and performance of art buying Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau: Painter of the Left: Portrait of Louis XIV is boxed up Right: Dealer persuading clients to buy (hand gesture) Art dealer/gallery director, shops for art: a new phenomenon (previously only private commissions) Gersaint the first to print catalogues for his exhibitions Last picture painted by Watteau (died in his 30s of tuberculosis) Boucher: Frivolty for the Boucher: Frivolty for the Aristocracy François Boucher, Cupid a Captive, 1754, oil on canvas Painter to Madame Pompadour(mistress to Louis XV) A ready market: rose­colored Rococo erotica for aristocracy Here: Cupid is held captive by Venus (?) and her attendants; he is obviously enjoying himself at it She steals his arrows Pyramid of female and infant flesh Hues of pinks and sky blues pervade the composition Background with overgrown wild garden Baroque hints with dynamic play of crisscrossing diagonals and curvilinear forms Dissects the power of baroque into multiplicity of decorative flourishes, dissipating Baroque Boucher: Frivolty for the Boucher: Frivolty for the Aristocracy François Boucher, Madame de Pompadour at Her Toilette 1758, oil on canvas Painter to Madame Pompadour (mistress to Louis XV) Exquisite representation of fabric, lace, and jewelry Pastel colors, large eyes Portrait as an artifice or façade: we are only Boucher: Boucher: Frivolty for the Aristocracy François Boucher, Odalisque, 1745, oil on canvas Enlightenment critic Diderot on Boucher: “This man does not pick up his brush but to show breasts and buttocks. I have no problem looking at these things, but I can’t stand that one is showing them to me… these seductive objects are contrary to the emotions of the soul due to their troubling effect on the senses.” Rococo painting existed in opposition to morally uplifting “history painting” promoted by the Academy Fragonard: Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Jean­Honoré Fragonard,The Swing, 1766, oil on Canvas Quintessential Rococo painting; source of Fragonard’s commercial success Commission requested by one Baron de Saint­Julien according to his specifications Aristocratic woman flinging her shoe off at her lover hiding in the bushes while conning an old bishop to push Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Saint­Julien wanted to have himself be included in a “position to observe the legs of this charming girl” Pastel color palette, soft light, delicate rendering of lace and fabric Setting: lush, moist, unkempt garden (reference to unbridled passion) with numerous sculptures Blasted bough looks like a lightning bolt Cupid raises his finger to his lip to hush the little dog (fidelity) that is barking Expression of human indulgence that typified the lifestyle of the French aristocracy Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Jean­Honoré Fragonard,The Pursuit, c. 1771,oil on canvas Private commission by Mme Du Barry, mistress of Louis XV Part of the interior decoration for her chateau at Louveciennes Story of courtship in 14 pictures (four executed) The beginning of love with presentation of a flower Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Jean­Honoré Fragonard, The Surprise, c. 1771, oil on canvas Typical Rococo pictures: praise of love, sensual pleasure, carefree life of the Aristocracy in an idealized setting Rose color, statues, unkempt garden Pyramid of statue with bodies Romeo and Juliet theatricality: moment of their surreptitious rendezvous being interrupeted For unknown reasons, MmeDu Barry refused to accept delivery of pictures, they were never installed: figures look a lot like her and Louis XV Fragonard, The Lover Crowned, 1771, oil on canvas Clodion: Rococo Sculpture Clodion: Rococo Sculpture Clodion, Nymph and Satyr, c. 1775, terracotta Worked exclusively in terracotta Sent by French Academy to Rome after winning the “Rome Prize” (Prix de Rome) Influence of Mannerism and Bernini, but infused with Rococo themes Light­hearted, decorative, erotic, frivolous, does not require great learning Attendants of bacchus: nymph races into satyr to pour wine in his mouth—very erotic Specialty: table top sculptures and architectural decoration Clodion: Rococo Sculpture Clodion: Rococo Sculpture Clodion, The Invention of the Balloon, 1784, terracotta Commemorative sculpture for the successful launching of the Montgolfier brothers’ first hot­air balloon in France (1783) Scientific/technical innovation presented in classical terms: putti, cherubs, Fama (personification of fame) swirling around hot air balloon Symbolic fire used as base (real hot air balloon would explode) An awkward work of art: Rococo could not accommodate the coming of the modern age and the social and technological changes it brought Rococo Art In Summary… Rococo Art In Summary… Elegant Salons in aristocratic households decorated with rocaille motifs of shells, organic shapes, delicate colors and sinuous lines of architectural ornamentation gilded mirrors, elegant furniture—organic shapes Small works on canvas commissioned by the aristocracy featuring erotic, sensual themes of human pleasure and frivolity in scenes such as the fete galante Set in lush landscapes executed in pastel colors, hazy, misty light ...
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