Once again they modeled the relationship between per

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Unformatted text preview: rawing board and conducted a more extensive empirical project. Once again, they modeled the relationship between per capita income and environmental quality using GEMS data sets. Only this time, while repeating an analysis of air quality, they focused heavily on water quality. The GEMS/Water project monitors various dimensions of water quality in river basins, lakes, and groundwater aquifers, but the data on lakes and groundwater are quite limited. Because of this, Grossman and Krueger focused their attention on river basins.11 Their 1995 study makes use of all variables that can be considered indicators of water quality, provided that they have anthropogenic constituents (not just “natural” pollutants) and that at least ten countries are represented in the sample. They found an EKC relationship for eleven of the fourteen indicators selected for the analysis. The estimated turning-point incomes (in 1985 and 2001 U.S. dollars) are shown in Table 1. Environmental Kuznets curves turning point for water pollution Table 1 W ater Pollution and I ncome EKC Turning Point Pollutant Arseni c Bi ol ogi cal oxygen demand Cadmi um Chemi cal oxygen demand D i ssol ved oxygen Fecal col i form N i trates Lead Smoke Sul fur dioxi de Total col i form 1985 U S$ $ 4,900 7,600 5,000 7,900 2,700 8,000 2,000 10,500 6,200 4,100 3,000 2001 U S$ $ 8,000 12,500 8,200 13,000 4,400 13,100 3,...
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This note was uploaded on 12/09/2013 for the course EEP 1 taught by Professor Berk during the Spring '12 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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