Take Home Final Exam Paul Firobind.docx - Take Home Final...

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Take Home Final Exam Work given As part of the course POLI340-001 Developing Areas/Middle East By Paul Firobind (260929844) For 14/12/2020
The Middle East is a region of the world with a lot at stake. Indeed, between the oil shocks, the Gulf wars, the democratic revolutions (the Arab Spring), or the place of Islam, the MENA is for me a region that suits my curiosity and whose history and politics are unfortunately taught very little in the Western school. Thus, I already knew quite well the origins of the Arab world, with the Ottoman Empire, and the history of the Saltana of Egypt from alā ad-Dīn Al-Ayyūbī and its conquest of the Holy Land and its expansion in Europe. However, what I learned during this session, and what I ultimately wanted to learn, was above all the complexity of the conflict zones in the Levant in particular, and to understand these issues and their prospects. Therefore, I learned two important pieces of information during this course. Firstly, I was able to better understand the particularly tense situation in Syria and the interests and power games of the different actors in the area. Secondly, I learned the different reasons for the success of Daesh in the years 2014 that allowed its proliferation. In July 2021, the Syrian civil war will celebrate its 10th anniversary. The Syria of Bashar El Assad is in the grip of a multilateral war which involves multiple belligerents such as Turkey, the Free Syrian Army, Daesh, the Party of the Democratic Union and their People's Protection Units but also the Coalition led by the United States, France, and the United Kingdom or Turkey and Russia. Nonetheless, I first learned in this course about the origins of Bashar's regime: the Socialist Arab Resurrection (Baath) Party. Indeed, I didn't know that the regime was born as a reactionary socialist initiative that was opposed to the nationalist liberals. So, I learned that the regime had, for example, limited the extent of land reform and the sequestration of industrial and commercial enterprises. This explains the regime's economic grip on its citizens and the iron hand that the Assad family has exercised and still exercises over Syria. Moreover, I learned a lot about Syria's prospects. Indeed, now that Daesh is no longer a real threat to the country, the Coalition has consequently withdrawn, and there are only the main players in the conflict left: the Bashar regime, the PYD, and the rebel forces opposed to the regime. Therefore, now that the armed phase of the revolution, which has cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of Syrians and the displacement of millions more, is coming to an end, the overall picture of Syria shows a completely fragmented country. The North is under Turkish influence which, via the presence of allied rebels from Ankara to Idlib and all-around Aleppo, controls a fertile agricultural region. A large part of the East is in the hands of the PKK but threatened by a Turkish offensive since the departure of the Americans. The PKK controls a large part of the Iraqi border, oil fields, and the Euphrates dam, the country's main source of electricity. The South is

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