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Wk 3-1 Chinese sounds and syllable structure(2)

Wk 3-1 Chinese sounds and syllable structure(2) - Wk 3-1...

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Wk 3-1 Phonemes/Chinese basic sounds/syllable structure
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Review “Phoneme” Dr. Daniel Jones (1881-1967)
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“Liz played with Paul” [ ] vs. [l ] ɫ ʲ Paul [p : ʰɔ ɫ ] / Paul [p : ʰɔ l ʲ ] [ ] vs. [k] ɫ Paul [p : ʰɔ ɫ ] /pork [p : ʰɔ k ʰ ] [ ] vs. [z] ɫ Paul [p : ʰɔ ɫ ] / Pause [p : ʰɔ z ]
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[l ] [l ] [ ] ʲ ̥ʲ ɫ ___V p,k___ V___ / l / To claim a phoneme (an abstract notion in phonology) (1) Phonetic similarity (2 ) Complementary distribution Phoneme allo phones
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Similar situations (spill) / [phil] VS. [bil] (spy) / [phai] VS. [bai] /p/ /b/ Although aspirated stops and unaspirated stops are physically different (they are two phones and we use different IPA symbols), we consider both to be the same sound
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Dr. Daniel Jones (1881-1967)
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What about Mandarin The sound [b] does not exist in actual Mandarin speech. We find only [p] and [ph]. These are distinctive: ?   vs ?   [pai] vs [phai] Thus we say that [p] and [ph] are phonemes in Mandarin. The aspiration is a distinctive feature,
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Phonemes and allophones Phonemes are language specific In English: In Mandarin Chinese: [p] [ph] [b] Spill spy pill pie pat bill buy bat [p] [ph] [b] /p/ /p/ /b/ ba ? pa ? ? [p] [ph] /p/ /ph/
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Basic Mandarin Sounds A typical Mandarin Chinese syllable (in pinyin): zh ōng 21 Initials (consonants) 37 finals (medial)+ vowels(+terminals) 4 tones (+neutral tone)
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Initials
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Mandarin Consonants IPA Stops Alveolar-dental Alveolar-dental
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Structure of Finals Three categories of rhymes/finals ? ? yùnm : ǔ -Simple rhymes ? ? ? dānyùnm : a, o, e, i, ǔ u, ü IPA [ a, o, , i, u, y] ɤ -Compound rhymes ? ? ? fùyùnm : ai, ei, ǔ ao, ou
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Chinese simple vowels
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Structures of the phonological system of Mandarin Four categories of ? hū (breath, utterance): ? ? ? hék uhū: rhymes starting with [u] ǒ
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