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Unformatted text preview: Daily Readings for Test 2 Reading for 9/26—Chapter 6- Subsistence Strategies Subsistence Economics— getting food for themselves and their families. Food Collection— a food getting strategy that obtains wild plant and animal resources through gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing. Foragers or Hunter Gatherers— those whom gather the food, and hunt it. Food Production— cultivate and domesticate plants and animals. Horticulture— conjure up visions of people with “green thumbs” growing orchids and other flowers in greenhouses. Anthro—it means growing of crops of all kinds with relatively simple tools and methods, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields. Extensive or Shifting Cultivation- - slash and burn techniques. Intensive agriculture— enable them to cultivate fields permanently. Commercialization— any area of life and which involves increasing dependence on buying and selling, usually with money as the medium of exchange. Pastoralism— most agriculturalists keep and breed some animals, but a small number of societies depend mostly for their living on domesticated herds of animals that feed on natural pasture. Steppes— dry, low grass cover Prairies— taller, better watered grass Savannas— tropical grasslands Reading for 9/26—SM #10—The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari Agriculture displaced foraging as the main subsistence technique over the next few thousand years, but some hunter gatherers lived on in the more remote parts of the world. The Ju/’hoansi— !kung—lived in the Kalahari Desert Found the !kung spent little time collecting food and managed to live long and fruitful lives in their difficult desert home. 2 Hunter Gatherer questionable assumptions o Notion that these people are primarily dependent on the hunting of game animals. o Their way of life is generally a precarious and arduous struggle for existence. In many societies—plant and marine resources are more important than game animals in a diet. !kung—inhabit semi-arid northwest region of the Kalahari Desert- marginal environment for human habitation. !kung- entirely dependent upon hunting and gathering for their subsistence. Many during dry season are by the wells—14 independent camps have one of the permanent waterholes. a On average, an independent spends 1/3 of his time living only with close relatives, 1/3 visiting other camps, 1/3 entertaining visitors from other camps. a Because of strong emphasis on sharing these are rarely more than 2 or 3 days supply of food on hand in a camp at a time. a Vegetable— 60-80% of total diet a Women provide 2-3 times as much food by weight as the men. a Population density—41 persons/100 sq miles a Bushmen move their camps 5-6 times a year—not far....
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- Spring '07
- Economic Resources, fam ilies