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Notes for Test 2

Notes for Test 2 - Test 2 Notes Subsistence-any ways human...

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Test 2 Notes 9/26/07 Subsistence— any ways human societies obtain/gather food. Major division in types of subsistence groups –food getting groups àhunter, gatherers. –food producing groups àhorticulture, agriculture- farmers –pastoralists. Now—most are food production. 10,000 BP (before present)—food getting that’s all people did then had nelithic evolution beginning process of making food. Why do we have different types of strategies? Environment, cultural ecology type of approach. Able to adapt to our environment because of culture. Ecosystem—what is the physical environment these people are staying in? Physical environment—how much rainfall? Temperature? Soil fertility? Will affect whether or not we will engage in farming Plants/Animals—how many critters are there to hunt? Variety? Human ^- kind of fits—humans are apart of ecosystem! Environment adapts back. If we are going to be hunters—what are other humans in that environment doing? Idea that ecosystem acts upon itself. Ex: Sickle cell anemia—relationship to malaria—the way the environment stimulates biological changes—Central Africa causes human body to create red blood cells—have sickle shape. Mutation—depending on whether or not you have inherited the gene—if parents had it likely you will. Naturally selective pressure against trait. Until Central Africans decided to be horticulturalists (slash and burn) (swidden)—if this is my plot of land, slash down all vegetation—burn it. = layer of ash (has all nutrients plants had) horticultural depends on hand tools. Distinct changes in environment are made. When they are finished using the land they become marshes, mosquitoes love to live in marshes. This changed the environment—higher rates of sickle cell than anywhere else. If only one parent has SSA- may be sick on occasion, but are immune to malaria. The selective pressure of this is higher rate of sickle cell. Affect ecosystem—environment/humans. How do groups look similar? Why? Traits of culture –culture, arbitrary 2 processes Convergent evolution— where 2 culture that have different culture history and background develop similar situations/conditions end up looking very close to one
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another. o Plains Indians of US –typical Indian o 2 distinct groups—Comanchi Indians –hunter, gatherers—Kayan Indians- crop cultivating group, but both look very similar. Parallel evolution— (similar to psychic unity)—ways of life develop similar strategies to deal with situations. o Meso-America—Asia similar kinds of backgrounds and ecological ways develop farming—similarly (not always the case, but sometimes—Parallel evolution) Culture Area— heuristic device—in thinking of particular geographic regions. If we look at a certain region – different societies practicing similar, but not identical cultures according to Steward. Hunter gatherers—members of a partial
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Notes for Test 2 - Test 2 Notes Subsistence-any ways human...

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