test 2 notes

test 2 notes - TEST 2 Subsistence strategy where people get...

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TEST 2 Subsistence strategy where people get there food from. WE are talking about the actual production of food. We have 4 kinds of subsistence strategy (3 out of the 4 are production strategy). 1. Hunter Gathers food getting (but not production). They are finding food that is already available in the environment. This is the oldest form of human subsistence. Until 10,000 years ago BP we had the Neolithic Revolution ( which was the beginning of food strategy within humans). 2. Pastoralism most of their food comes from animals like cattle. In South America- people use limas… they are breeding animals. They are creating these animals. This is different from the kind of animal breeding in the United States. A true pastoralist breeds these animals, which is highly involved in their culture. Maasai people eat 80% of their food comes from their cattle. 3. Horticulture/ Agriculture food production that is based on plants. A Horticulturist plant in a garden (a variety of different things in their garden). This is because sometimes one of those things does not grow. In Agriculture- there is irrigation (not in horticulture). Also- they use large ass fields. . but not in horticulture. Horticulture swidden (slash and burn)… you slash down the vegetation. ECOSYSTEM it is composed of the physical environment (rainfall, indigenous plants) and then the humans that are involved in it. The people that live there are apart of it- and relate to that eco system. CARRYING CAPACITY the number of individuals that can be supported on a particular piece of land given a subsistence strategy. MARGINAL ENVIRONMENTS Hunter- Gatherer What kind of environments do they live in?? --- marginal environments from the point of view of food production (Kalahari, interior deserts of Africa, Artic communities). These are less productive types of land. They are hunting-gathering in a modern/current environment. We can’t see them as living fossils. They tend to be nomadic and this mobility tends to be seasonal. They have low levels of material culture. They don’t store food or build up a surplus. They are egalitarian (social classification) o Power – ability to coercive someone to do what I want them to do o Prestige – status in society (been born with different level of status) o Wealth – any kind of material resource that we agree is degree of wealth We have a class system (every individual is born in particular point of access to power, prestige, and wealth) Egalitarian society = every individual is born with equal access to power, prestige, and wealth o Hunter-gathers are egalitarian They live in bands – acknowledge they are related to each other in some way and
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they agree on headman (acquired, achieve position of prestige) They have flexible claims to resources. They might be associated to particular territory because they come back to it year to year, but they cant deny people access to it. They are “the original affluent society”
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test 2 notes - TEST 2 Subsistence strategy where people get...

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