12 - Chapter 12 Continued(447-476 Perceiving and...

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Chapter 12 Continued (447-476) Perceiving and understanding ourselves o Self-schema Individual is seen as existing separately from other people Sense of self influences social world and is influenced by world We learn more about ourselves learning both from our interactions with others and from our observations of ourselves Cognitive schema o Implicit theory of personality - includes knowledge about our own gender, physical characteristics, and values o Possible selves -help guide our response to the world around us Ideal self - the one you want to be Ought self - the self one thinks one should be Promotion focus vs. prevention focus o Self esteem and self enhancement Self esteem - the balance of positive and negative judgments about oneself Trait self esteem - one’s typical self esteem State self esteem - varies from moment to moment Above average effect When Americans compare themselves with others on favorable characteristics, the vast majority judge
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