Chapter 16 Psychology Outline

Chapter 16 Psychology Outline - Difference concepts of...

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Difference concepts of mental disorder A. One of earliest theories was that man was possessed by evil spirits. B. Middle Ages- mental illness is discovered to be a “type of disease.” 1. 1500’s—special hospitals established throughout Europe 2. Special hospitals more like prisons than treatment centers C. Somatogenic hypothesis—mental illness, like other forms of illness, could be traced to some injury or infection 1. Hypothesis due to discoveries about “general paresis,” or a gradual decline in mental stability and character (without treatment patient eventually dies from paralysis) 2. In 1897, Richard von Krafft-Ebing found general paresis was caused by syphilis—and could be treated via anti- biotic D. Mental disorder as a psychological illness 1. Somatogenic hypothesis did not cover hysteria 2. Other view of illness cause had to be made II. The Modern Conception of Mental Disorder A. Psychodynamic models 1. Presented by Freud and his followers 2. Mental disorders are thought to be the manifestations of unconscious psychological conflicts, originating in one’s childhood experiences B. Learning models 1. Presented by other theorists 2. Built on the assumption that many mental disorders result from maladaptive learning
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3. These mental disorders are best corrected with remedial learning C. Diathesis-Stress Models 1.One set of factors—the diathesis —creates a predisposition or risk for disorder (ex. Biological/genetical depressive tendencies) 2.Different set of factors—the stress —provides the trigger that turns the potential into the actual disorder (ex. Break up, sudden traumatic experience) D. Multicausal Models 1.Based on the assumption that there are multiple factors creating the diathesis, and multiple factors creating the stress 2. Other risk factors are involved a. Gender- men more likely to be depressed than women b. Protective factors- factors in home environment, support of friends, or an optimistic outlook can diminish someone’s risk of depression, and can make her more resilient if she encounters some source of stress 3. Modern investigators rely on multicausal models 4.Many scientists even take a biopsychosocial viewpoint , one that includes biological, psychological, and social factors III. Classifying Mental Disorders A. Assessment - refers to broad set of procedures used to gather information about an individual 1.Begin with clinical interview— patient describes problems 2.Clinician may also rely on a structured interview —specific questions asked with attention to certain types of connect. 3. Attention towards symptoms
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a. Multiple symptoms and multiple signs lead to diagnosis of syndromes b. Symptoms used by DSM (see below) 4. Clinician asks about family history 5.Everything leads to d iagnosis - a claim that an individual has a specific form of mental illness B. The MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course PSYC 001 taught by Professor Rozin during the Fall '07 term at UPenn.

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Chapter 16 Psychology Outline - Difference concepts of...

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