And while we cannot forecast with any confidence the

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Unformatted text preview: ive and competitive interactions in forest communities, and accounts for trade-offs between survival and growth that can result from manipulation of broadleaf trees. We suggest that this integration and understanding of interaction mechanisms and trade-offs are essential for predicting the net effect of vegetation-management treatments on forest ecosystem productivity and resilience. And while we cannot forecast with any confidence the effects of climate change, a mixed conifer–broadleaf forest should provide a greater buffering capacity than single-species forests against the stresses that it will impose, based upon our research and sound ecological theory. References Aitken, K.E.H., Wiebe, K.L., and Martin, K. 2002. Nest-site re-use patterns for a cavity-nesting bird community in interior British Columbia. Auk, 119: 391–402. Andersson, S. 1985. Treatment of young mixed stands with birch and conifers. In Broadleaves in boreal silviculture — an obstacle or an asset? Edited by B. Hagglund and G. Peterson. Department of Silviculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden. pp. 127–162. Baleshta, K.E. 1998. The effect of ectomycorrhizae hyphal links on interactions between Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Betula papyrifera Marsh. seedlings. B.Sc. thesis, University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, B.C. Baleshta, K.E., Simard, S.W., Guy, R.D., and Chanway, C.P. 2005. Reducing paper birch density increases Douglas-fir growth rate and Armillaria root disease incidence in southern interior British Columbia. For. Ecol. Manage. 208: 1–13. Blenner-Hassett, T. 1996. Associative nitrogen fixation in the rhizospheres of paper birch and Douglas-fir. B.Sc. thesis, University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, B.C. Boateng, J.O., Haeussler, S., and Bedford, L. 2000. Boreal plant community diversity 10 years after glyphosate treatment. West. J. Appl. For. 15: 15–26. Brand, D.G., and Weetman, G.F. 1986. Standards for regeneration establishment in Canada: a case study for Douglas-fir. For. Chron. 62: 84–90. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. 2000. Establishment to free growing guidebook: Kamloops Forest Region (revised ed). For- 2493 est Practices Code of British Columbia Guidebook. Version 2.2. Forest Practices Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. Brockley, R.P., and Sanborn, P. 2003. Effects of Sitka alder on the growth and foliar nutrition of young lodgepole pine in the central interior of British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 33: 1761– 1771. Callaway, R.M., and Walker, L.R. 1997. Competition and facilitation: a synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. Ecology, 78: 1958–1965. Cameron, I.R. 1996. Vertical stratification in some 50 year-old mixed species stands in the Interior Cedar–Hemlock zone. In Silviculture of Temperate and Boreal Broadleaved–Conifer Species: Proceedings of a Workshop, 28 February–1 March 1995, Richmond, B.C. Edited by P.G. Comeau and K.D. Thomas. Handb. 36, British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Land Management, Victoria, B.C. pp. 122–125. Comeau, P.G., Gendron, F., and Letchford, T. 1998. A comparison of several methods for estimating light under a paper birch mixedwood stand. Can. J. For. Res. 28: 1843–1850. Comeau, P.G., Biring, B.S., and Harper, G.J. 2000. Conifer responses to brushing treatments: a summary of British Columbia data. B.C. Minist. For. Ext. Note 41. Comeau, P.G., Wang J.R., and Letchford, T. 2003. Influences of paper birch competition on growth of understory white spruce and subalpine fir following spacing. Can. J. For. Res. 33: 1962– 1973. Comeau, P.G., Kabzems, R., McClarnon, J., and Heineman, J.L. 2005. Implications of selected approaches for regenerating and managing western boreal mixedwood. For. Chron. 81: 559–574. Cruickshank, M.G., Morrison, D.J., and Punja, Z.K. 1997. Incidence of Armillaria species in precommercial thinning stumps and spread of Armillaria ostoyae to adjacent Douglas-fir trees. Can. J. For. Res. 27: 481–490. de Bellefeuille, S., Gagné, N., Bélanger, L., Huot, J., Cimon, A., Déry, S., and Jetté, J.-P. 2001. Effets de trois scenarios de regeneration de la sapinière boréale sur les passereaux nicheurs les petits mammifères et le liévre d’Amérique. Can. J. For. Res. 31: 1312–1325. DeLong, R.L., Lewis, K.J., Simard, S.W., and Gibson, S. 2002. Fluorescent pseudomonad population sizes baited from soils under pure birch, pure Douglas-fir and mixed forest stands and their antagonism toward Armillaria ostoyae in vitro. Can. J. For. Res. 32: 2146–2159. Dickie, I.A., Schnitzer, S.A., Reich, P.B., and Hobbie, S.E. 2005. Spatially disjunct effects of co-occurring competition and facilitation. Ecol. Lett. 8: 1191–1200. Drever, C.R., and Lertzman, K.P. 2001. Light-growth responses of coastal Douglas-fir and western redcedar saplings under different regimes of soil moisture and nutrients. Can. J. For. Res. 31: 2124–2133. Frivold, L.H., and Frank, J. 2002. Growth of mixed birchconife...
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