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and competitive interactions in forest communities, and accounts for trade-offs between survival and growth that can
result from manipulation of broadleaf trees. We suggest that
this integration and understanding of interaction mechanisms
and trade-offs are essential for predicting the net effect of
vegetation-management treatments on forest ecosystem productivity and resilience. And while we cannot forecast with
any confidence the effects of climate change, a mixed conifer–broadleaf forest should provide a greater buffering capacity than single-species forests against the stresses that it
will impose, based upon our research and sound ecological
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