Unformatted text preview: rous stands in relation to pure coniferous stands at similar
sites in south-eastern Norway. Scand. J. For. Res. 17: 139–149.
Frivold, L.H., and Kolström, T. 1999. Yield and treatment of mixed
stands of boreal tree species in Fennoscandia. In Management of
mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics. Edited by A.F.
Olsthoorn, F.M. Bartelink, J.J. Gardiner, H. Pretzsch, H.J.
Hekhuis, and A. Franc. Institute for Forestry and Nature
Research, Wageningen, Netherlands. IBN Sci. Contrib. 15.
Gerlach, J.P., Reich, P.B., Puettmann, K., and Baker, T. 1997. Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from
Armillaria root rot. Can. J. For. Res. 27: 1509–1512.
© 2006 NRC Canada 2494
Goldberg, D.E., Rajaniemi, T., Gurevitch, J., and Stewart-Oaten, A.
1999. Empirical approaches to quantifying interaction intensity:
competition and facilitation along productivity gradients. Ecology, 80: 1118–1131.
Grime, J.P. 1998. Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects. J. Ecol. 86: 902–910.
Haeussler, S., and Bergeron, Y. 2004. Range of variability in boreal
aspen plant communities after wildfire and clear-cutting. Can. J.
For. Res. 34: 274–288.
Haeussler, S., Bedford, L., Boateng, J.O., and MacKinnon, A.
1999. Plant community response to mechanical site preparation
in northern interior British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 29:
Haight, R.G. 1993. The economics of Douglas-fir and red alder
management with stochastic price trends. Can. J. For. Res. 23:
Hamann, A., and Wang, T. 2005. Models of climatic normals for
genecology and climate change studies in British Columbia.
Agric. For. Meteorol. 128: 211–221.
Hammond, H. 1991. Seeing the forest among the trees: the case for
wholistic forest use. Polestar Press Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.
Hansen, J., Nazarenko, L., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., Willis, J., Del
Genio, A., Koch, D., Lacis, A., Lo, K., Menon, S., Novakov, T.,
Perlwitz, J., Russel, G., Schmidt, G.A., and Tausnev, N. 2005.
Earth’s energy imbalance: confirmations and implications. Science, 308: 1431–1435.
Harper, J.L. 1977. Population biology of plants. Academic Press,
Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., and Mather, W.J. 2002. Natural regeneration of small patch cuts in a southern interior ICH forest.
Working Pap. 64, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria,
B.C. Available from http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/wp/
Johnson, E.A., Fryer, G.I., and Heathcott, M.J. 1990. The influence
of man and climate on fire frequency in the Interior Wet Belt
forest, British Columbia. J. Ecol. 78: 403–412.
Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Harniman, S.M.K., Classen, D.C., and
Simard, S.W. 1997. Ectomycorrhizal diversity on Betula
papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings grown in the
greenhouse or outplanted in single-species and mixed plots in
southern British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 27: 1872–1889.
Kabzems, R., and Garcia, O. 2004. Structure and dynamics of
trembling aspen – white spruce mixed stands near Fort Nelson,
B.C. Can. J. For. Res. 34: 384–395.
Kenk, G.K. 1992. Silviculture of mixed species stands in Germany.
In The ecology of mixed species stands of trees. Vol. 11. Edited
by M.G.R. Cannell, D.C. Malcom, and P.A. Robertson.
Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, and British Ecological Society, London, UK. pp. 53–63.
Kimmins, J.P., Caza, C., Messier, C., Karakatsoulis, J., Scoullar,
K.A., and Apps, M.J. 1990. FORCYTE and FORECAST: ecosystem-level management models with which to examine the
yield, economic, energy and wildlife implications of vegetation
management as a component of rotation-length silvicultural systems. Can. For. Serv. FRDA Rep. 109.
Klinka, K, Worrall, J., Skoda, L., and Varga, P. 2000. The distribution and synopsis of ecological and silvical characteristics of
tree species of British Columbia’s forests. Canadian
Cartographics Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.
Kneitel, J.M., and Chase, J.M. 2004. Trade-offs in community
ecology: linking spatial scales and species coexistence. Ecol.
Lett. 7: 69–80.
Lautenschlager, R.A. 2000. Can intensive silviculture contribute to Can. J. For. Res. Vol. 36, 2006
sustainable forest management in northern ecosystems? For.
Chron. 76: 283–295.
Lieffers, V.J., Macmillan, R.B., MacPherson, D., Branter, K., and
Stewart, J.D. 1996. Semi-natural and intensive silvicultural systems for the boreal mixedwood forest. For. Chron. 72: 286–292.
Lieffers, V.J., Pinno, B.D., and Stadt, K.J. 2002. Light dynamics
and free-to-grow standards in aspen-dominated mixedwood forests. For. Chron. 78: 137–145.
Löfman, S., and Kouki, J. 2001. Fifty years of landscape transformation in managed forests of southern Finland. Scand. J. For.
Res. 16: 44–53.
Lortie, C.J., and Callaway, R.M. 2006. Re-analysis of metaanalysis: support for the stress-gradient hypothesis. J. Ecol. 94:
Maestre, F.T., Valladares, F., and Reynolds, J.F. 2005. Is the
change of plant–plant intera...
View Full Document
- Fall '13
- The Land, Forest, Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, Suzanne Simard, paper birch