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HISTORY FINAL NOTES China and Europe Compared February 6 – 11 State vs. Religion Why did China’s many ethnicities cohere so durably around a single state? As long as no one challenged its “sole super power” status, the Qing state stood everything to gain by promoting tolerance (as did most of its tributaries). Cowtowing, Canton trading. Key terms: Eunuchs : During the Ming dynasty, they were castrated men that provided communication from royal family to outside bureaucrats. They could tweak government policy and take bribes, which led to the corruption of government. Manchu Invasion : looted the countryside and provided evidence that China could not prevent bandagery if they can’t control a peasant rebel. Manchus planned to take over China after emperor committed suicide. Made connections with indigenous scholarly elite (collusion). Early Qing Emperors : Kanxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong. They had to persuade millions of Chinese that they should embrace the new government. The people from the outside of the wall who had been considered barbaric were now ruling. How do they get the Chinese to support the government? Military force and cultural politicking. Foreign Relations -Reinforced Chinese sense of self - Sinocentrism : belief that China is at center of civilized world (Middle Kingdom) - Son of Heaven : Emperor but not in Jesus sense. Job of son of heaven to communicate between world and after life. Rebels, decadence, plague, food means spirit world is cast aside. Time for a new one. ( Mandate of Heaven ) Guangzhou : Point where Chinese can control what’s going in and out of empire. Board of Rights : Trading rights with China with other Asian countries Cowtowing : respect shown to emperor by bowing. Europe willing to cowtow but did not buy into “Son of Heaven.” Canton Trading : Means for China to control trade with the west within its own country. Why did Europe’s many states cohere so weakly around a single religion? Europe’s religious divisions hindered empire and hardened sovereign state competition. Key terms: Martin Luther : Luther visits Holy Roman empire, meeting in Vorms to start reformation. John Calvin : Calvinism. Tried to take over France for Protestant Reformation. Calvinism spreads to Netherlands. Henry VIII : created Anglican church in England and pushed for divorce. England takes control of Catholic hierarchy. 3 children by 3 different wives. Mary I undertakes reformation of Protestants and kills as many as possible who wouldn’t convert to Catholicism. Elizabeth I converts to Protestantism. These countries (Spain, England) are breaking off from Habsburg rule. Theses : Indulgences bought to wipe away sins. Diet of Worms : addressed Martin Luther and effects of Reformation. Thirty Years War
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course HIST 105 taught by Professor Mcneely during the Winter '08 term at University of Oregon.

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